Hello again! This post is based on my last post, (Isaac Newton + Physics)² X Quenya = !!!. The main goals of this post are to explain the translations, as there are some really weird things there and also explain the Newton’s Laws of Motion, so important to physics. This post will require some more advanced physics notions, that I’ll introduce in the next paragraph, and also some more Quenya and Tengwar knowledge, but nothing extremely hard.
So let’s start defining a few physics concepts. Let’s start with force, as it’s the most important object of study in the laws.
Force is an influence that causes an object (or a body) to change its state, either it being a movement, direction of geometrical construction change. Here, we’re only going to use the first two changes: we’ll only treat of movement and direction changes, which requires the introduction of the next concept, the vector.
A vector is an object with two qualities: magnitude (sometimes called length) and direction. Imagine an arrow flying away from a bow: the arrow has a fixed length and a fixed direction, which can only be changed by external means. Vectorial units are always represented with an arrow above the symbol, like this: . It’s very important in physics, as when something is moving, it goes somewhere with a certain speed or velocity. But what’s that? Speed describes how fast an object is moving, while velocity also states in which direction it is going. In other words, it’s the rate at which a body “walks” a certain distance through time. It’s usually represented as . I shall treat them as synonyms here. But as we all know, speed isn’t always constant. When you get in a car, you have to accelerateit for it to speed up, right? Which leads to our next (and last, for now) concept: acceleration.
Acceleration is the rate at which speed changes through time, and always has a corresponding force (as will be explained later, on the second law) and is represented as .
So now we have everything (or almost) needed to understand the laws!
Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum, nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare.
Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed.
Newton’s first law, as explained on the last post, says that speed can only be changed by a force applied. So far so good. Let’s go to the Quenya version of it:
Sanyë 1: Ilya hroa serë tápina hya úvistala leviëssë tëanna, tenna levië ahya napanna túrenen.
Let’s check that out:
úvistala leviëssë tëanna: unchanging movement towards a straight line. See the vector there? The direction is explicit here: a straight line! This means this is a vectorial unit: it has magnitude AND direction!
levië ahya: This one is a little tricky. If you check Quettaparma, lev- is the verb move. So you can see another application of an early defined concept: speed. Speed is the moving of a body, so levië (gerund of move) is the perfect word for that! If you go further on Quettaparma, you’ll see there’s the verb horta (speed) and the noun hortalë (speeding). Why not those? You’ll understand later on. BUT WAIT A MINUTE! That’s not what’s written there! I know! It was not a literal translation, I translated the meaning of the sentence. The meaning shall be given later.
napanna túrenen: by an added force. Another concept here, force.
The literal meaning of my translation is the following:
Law I: Every body rests stopped or in unchanging movement towards a straight line, until speed changes by a force added.
Physically, it’s pretty much the same. Uncle Newton flourished them too much.
Let’s go to the first formula now!
First, the . It’s the capital Greek letter Sigma (Σ), which, in math, represents a summation of many similar terms. In this case, it represents the sum of all the forces on the body. After a lot of discussion with Erunno and Erutulco, we came to a conclusion that for Greek letters, we could use a different, more ancient alphabet…. Sarati! That symbol represents the letter w. But why? Well, Erunno did some crazy researches on the dark sides (of the force) of some weird things and found out that wō is a Common Eldarin word for together. What is sum if not putting things together? So… perfect!
Second, the force . This one is pretty straight forward. I used tinco, as it’s the first tengwa for túrë (force). But…. There is a vector there! As you can see, I added a straight line on top of it (sometimes it’s used as a nasal mark in Tengwar English – no idea on other modes), so it’ll do a similar work to the arrow upwards the “normal” arrows on the latin alphabet.
The vectorial zero() was changed to the numerical Tengwa for zero, with the vector as well.
That double arrow thingy is an “if, and only if” condition, also meaning a double implication. This means that once one condition is met, the other will be as well.
“Hey, there’s an lambë there” Yes, remember that I defined levië as speed? No vectors there, as I’m representing only the magnitude (module, if you preffer). If it had a vector, no problems.
And what about the “ú” there? Well, in the original formula, I used k as constant (unchanging), a common notation in maths. For the Quenya version, úvistala (unchanging) was used.
Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae, et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur.
Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress’d; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress’d.
Newton’s second law is mostly mathematics. Let’s check it out:
Sanyë II: I ahië leviéva ná nyarna napanna túrenen, ar lelyëas tentaina tëanna napanna túrenen.
Nothing new to be introduced here, let’s go straight to the literal translation:
Law II: The changing of movement is related to an added force, and goes directed toward a straight line by the force applied
Well, the importance of this law is the formula: the most important of classic mechanics. Everything else can, someway, be obtained from this.
The first part is the usual, , nothing new here. The magic starts on the second part. The here represents mass (usually confused with weight), and is measured in grams (or, more usually, in kilograms). As you can see, no vectors here. A body has mass, it is part of it and it’s not directed towards anything. Why the “e”? Well, in Quenya, erma is a word for matter (more specifically, basic matter), and as mass is the amount of matter, perfect! The next one, , acceleration, is the trickiest of them all. There’s an hyarmen there. And the line is below it. Whaaaat? Well, the hyarmen stands for hortalë, which can be translated as speeding. Wait…. Speeding? Yes! It can be interpreted (at least in my humble opinion) as the changing of speed, which, by definition, is acceleration. And the vector line, well, aesthetics.
Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi.
Law III: To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions.
Third law is the action and reaction one. I won’t explain it, as it’s the most known and there’s the first post to check it. Let’s go for the translation.
Sanyë III: Ilya carda illumë carë imya ar ilimya encarda: i túren atta hroar ná illume imya ar tentaina ilimyë tiennar.
Carda & encarda: This one was found by Erunno, a life-saver! Carda means deed and comes from the verb car- (to make), so it can be used as action. The prefix en- means again, re-, so, by extension, it’s a reaction.
Imya & ilimya: Also suggested by Erunno. Imya means equal, and the prefix il- is an equivalent to the English un-, so it’s an equal and un-equal action! So, equal and opposite!
The literal translation:
Law III: Every action always makes an equal and un-equal reaction: the force of two bodies are always equal and directed towards un-equal paths.
So now let’s go to my favorite part, the formula.
The third law formula offers no new concepts, except for the use of…. I don’t know the correct word for that… Well, the small letters representing to which body the force is related. The is related to the force body 1 makes on the second, and is the force of body 2 interacting on body 1. As the enunciate says, they are equal and opposite, hence the minus signal. Their magnitude is equal, but they have opposite directions.
If you don’t like physics, I’m pretty sure this post was extremely boring. If you do, you probably know most, if not all of what was said here, so it was also boring. As a bonus for those of you that didn’t die in the middle of the post, check this out!