I really considered NOT writing this post as Nominative case is pretty simple and present in all languages in the universe. But why letting this Quenya Case Declension Guide be sort of incomplete without this Nominative explanation too? People who are beginning their studies might need this info, so here I am for the rescue! “Let’s do it” I say!
Index of this series
How to use it?
Easy! There is NO case suffix to be added to the noun! Nothing is added! You just need to pay attention to the number of the noun and that’s it, that’s Nominative! Check the table below:
Nouns in Quenya are separated in 2 types: The ones ending in vowel and the ones ending in consonant. Also, there are 3 numbers: singular, plural and dual. (strictly two, only two, a pair of)
The basic rule for plural form involves:
- nouns ending in vowel = +r
- nouns ending in consonant = +i
Of course, there are irregularities. Sometimes the stem of the word is taken into consideration before forming its plural form. Take a look at “perian” for instance. Unlike, “aran” which ends in ‘n’ and has a regular form, “perian” has the stem “periand-” and therefore “periandi” as plural, NOT
The basic rule for dual form involves:
- euphony! Depending on the sound, the word may gain a +t or +u
Dual is hard! You gotta consider many things before forming a dual as the ending of the word, the sound of the word, the irregular and/or old forms of that word. It’s tough and you’ll need a little research before forming one, unless you know it by heart. Some are pretty common like alda>aldu (tree>pair of trees) hen>hendu (eye>pair of eyes) and cirya>ciryat (ship>pair of ships)
When to use it?
1. when a noun is the subject of a sentence.
E.g.: I arani nar vanimë. (The kings are handsome). “Arani” is the subject of this sentence and therefore it’s nominative case.
2. when a noun is the predicate. (i.e. a property or quality that a subject has or is characterized by)
E.g.: Legolas ná i elda melis (Legolas is the elf she loves). “Elda” is the predicate of this sentence, it is the quality or property of the subject Legolas, therefore it’s nominative case.
3. when the noun is the direct object of a sentence.
E.g.: I naucor antar i macil i perianden (The dwarves give the sword to the halfling). “Macil” is the direct object of the sentence. Something (direct object) is given to someone (indirect object). As there is not an accusative case in “Modern Quenya” (3rd Age of the Sun or LotR Quenya), the direct object form remains the same as nominative.
4. when the noun comes after most prepositions, particles and the like.
E.g: I hendu nar opo i cendelë. (The eyes are in front of the face). “Cendelë” comes after the preposition “opo” and it remains in nominative case. Be careful here because even though Quenya has few prepositions, some requires the declination of the noun to another case such as genitive, allative, etc. The main exceptions are the particles: et, arwa, rá & ú (out of, in control of, on behalf of, destitute of; respectively)
Stay tuned….there’s MUCH more to come!