# Category Archives: Latin

## While there is life, there is hope … in Quenya

NEW quote translated into Quenya!

### MARCVS TVLLIVS CICERO’s paraphrased quote

(Requested by William Keating and answered in 79 hours with EXTRA features through X101)

Filed under Elvish, History, Latin, Poem & Prose, Quenya, Tengwar Noldor

## SIMVL IVSTVS ET PECCATOR.

NEW quote translated into Quenya!

Martin Luther’s quote

(Requested by Greg Gedrasik and answered in 85 hours with HUGE Tengwar fonts perfect for a tattoo through Tattoo Q101)

Click on the sentence above  to check its details or search about it and much more!

ùôó

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SIMVL IVSTVS ET PECCATOR which is the 489th famous quote translated into Quenya…

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Filed under History, Latin, Poem & Prose, Quenya, Religion, Tengwar Annatar Italics

## OMNIA SVNT COMMVNIA

NEW quote translated into Quenya!

Thomas Müntzer’s quote

(Requested by Joel Laforest and answered in 101 hours with EXTRA features through X101)

More details here or through the search option.

CDLXV

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Request anything you want in the appropriate pages and they’ll all be gladly answered to you. If you don’t wanna wait a long time in line, please consider quicker options like…

Thank you all and see you soon!

OMNIA SVNT COMMVNIA is the 465th famous quote translated into Quenya…

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Filed under History, Latin, Poem & Prose, Quenya

## Þorn & ƿynn

As the previous post showed there was a time that Latin Alphabet had 27 letters. Yes, English was written with 1 additional letter, the &. (due to Latin influence). Now, before there was even a Latin influence to be accounted for something, there was Anglo-Saxon culture and their Runic Alphabet known as fuþorc to start with. FuÞorc! See? There’s already a different letter right there, right? Read below a little bit more about the history of our own alphabet and those 2 extinct letters…

## Þorn & ƿynn

(thorn and wynn)

Our analysis start with  Old English. English was first written in the alphabet mentioned above, the Anglo-Saxon fuÞorc, also known as Anglo-Saxon. The Angles and Saxons came from Germany and settled in Britain in the fifth century. The region they inhabited became known as “Angle-land,” or “England.”

Eventually, Christian missionaries introduced the Latin alphabet, which ultimately replaced Anglo-Saxon. But for some time, the alphabet included the letters of the Latin alphabet, some symbols (like &), and some letters of Old English.

As Modern English evolved, the Old English letters were dropped or replaced.

(Our trusty alphabet isn’t the only part of language that has changed — October used to be the eighth month, and September the seventh.)

Here’s an example:  In Old English, a letter called “thorn” represented the “th” sound (as in “that”) in Modern English. In the Latin alphabet, the “y” was the symbol that most closely resembled the character that represented thorn. So, thorn was dropped and “y” took its place.

That is why the word “ye,” as in “Ye Olde Booke Shoppe,” is an archaic spelling of “the.”

The Old English letter “wynn” was replaced by “uu,” which eventually developed into the modern w. (It really is a double u.)

The letters “u” and “j” didn’t join what we know as the alphabet until the sixteenth century.

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Filed under Alphabet, English, History, Latin, Old English

## And per se And

Alphabets! Great group of symbols designed to express a language in written media. Alphabets are present in our everyday life (right now you’re reading one arranged according to English language) and we never realize the long story & journey each single letter has to tell. For instance, what happened to the 27th lost letter of Roman alphabet? What was it & why it’s not around here anymore?

Johnson & Johnson, Barnes & Noble, Dolce & Gabbana: the AMPERSAND today is used primarily in business names, but that small character was indeed the 27th letter of the Latin alphabet. Where did it come from though? The origin of its name is almost as bizarre as the name itself.

The shape of the character (&) predates the word ampersand by more than 1,500 years. In the first century, Roman scribes wrote in cursive, so when they wrote the Latin word et which means “and” they linked the e and t. Over time the combined letters came to signify the word “and” in English as well. Certain versions of the ampersand, like that in the font Caslon, clearly reveal the origin of the shape.

The word “ampersand” came many years later when “&” was actually part of the English alphabet. In the early 1800s, school children reciting their ABCs concluded the alphabet with the &. It would have been confusing to say “X, Y, Z, and.” Rather, the students said, “and per se and.” “Per se” means “by itself,” so the students were essentially saying, “X, Y, Z, and by itself and.” Over time, “and per se and” was slurred together into the word we use today: ampersand.

(The ampersand is also used in an unusual configuration where it appears as “&c” and means etc. The ampersand does double work as the e and t.)

The ampersand isn’t the only former member of the alphabet. There are MORE and it’ll be shown for the curious and avid minds soon. Stay tuned.

Based on Dictionary.com

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Filed under English, Fonts, History, Latin

## Quenya words ∈ world languages

César Rojas Bravo!

Did you read the name above? Fine…now we can start our post!

Well, he’s the guy who brought the compilation you’re about to see to life! It’s a hell of an idea, and very interesting for the ones who love Quenya and languages in general (me….guilty :D). Read below and you’ll see that there is more in Quenya than meets the eye!

Hasn’t it ever happened to you, that when you come upon certain Quenya words, you realize the same word exists in your language, or in a language you are familiar with?
It has happened several times to me, so I decided to take Helge Fauskanger’s Quenya-English Wordlist and go word by word to find out which words have a meaning (not necessarily the same one, mostly not) in languages I am familiar with.
I found many words existing mostly in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Catalan and Latin, languages I have some knowledge of. Thanks to Milla Leskinen, who helped me by identifying  words in Quenya that exist in Finnish, to Celebrinthal for identifying words in Polish, Japanese and German, among others, to Metaflora for Hungarian words, to Emma Flacking, for Swedish and Norwegian, to John Karpo for Greek and to Kastytis Zubovas for Lithuanian.
J. R. R. Tolkien knew Finnish and Latin, so Quenya words existing in these languages probably are not coincidences, whether they have the same meaning or not, but most likely, Professor Tolkien wasn’t aware of all the word coincidences we have found. I have not included the matches with the English language, since no doubt Tolkien knew if this Quenya word existed in English. Occasionally I used a dictionary to double-check the word’s definitions.
I first list the words in Quenya, followed by language and the meaning it has in it. I hope you enjoy it, and of course, if you read Helge’s wordlist and find words in languages not listed here, or words missing, or any corrections you would like to make, please contact me!
Finally, towards the end of the writing of this entry, I found an essay called “Similarities between natural languages and Tolkien’s Eldarin”, by Roman Rausch, in which you can find, among many other interesting things, a list of matches between Noldorin/Sindarin and Welsh and Irish, and a list of matches in other languages, but in which the meanings are very similar or at least related.
Is that it? NO….there’s much more! There’s the whole long list yet! Check for yourselves there, at his site, where the quote was taken from. HERE!
See? And yet once in a while, I still hear people say that Quenya is not real, it’s a fake language…..oh boy…..

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## Aranië Italyanna (Repubblica Italiana)

A long long time ago, someone asked me this map. I was digging up some old comments last month while in vacation and found request. Here, in Quenya101, everything is done for the fans and if something is asked, I’ll personally strive to achieve it (be it difficult or not) provided it’s not an impossible feat. It may take a long time, but in the end, you’ll have it! The Italian guy who asked me is a living proof of that and it serves as a gift for all Italian Tolkien fans! Benvenuti in Italia!

I don’t know Italian yet (I’m saving it to learn as my 7th language) but the names were not THAT hard as I expected.  Everything was Latin related and mostly came from names of ancient tribes.

You can check all the previous maps already “converted” to Quenya by clicking all the links available in Eldar Ambaressë section! Check if your country is there! If not, well don’t be shy, just ask!

Aranië Italyanna

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Filed under Countries, Elvish, Geography, Italian, Latin, Map, Quenya, Tengwar

So…. I’m enjoying medieval poetry translation. This time, let’s go with……Latin! This song, Ad Mortem Festinamus, is part of the  Llibre Vermell de Montserrat (“Red Book of Montserrat”), a 14th century book containing medieval songs, located in the Monastery of Montserrat, located in Spain. This song belongs to a special genre of art named Memento mori (“Remember your mortality”…..totally not Elvish, huh?), that has exactly this purpose: to make you remember you’re a mortal being.

This song’s name means “We rush into death”….. no explanations needed, I guess.

It also has been recorded several times recently. For instance, I know Qntal’s version, which doesn’t please me so much, and Gothart’s, that is fantastic. So, I present you, Ad Mortem Festinamus Quenyanna!

### Quenya Version

Merin tecë i ulco Ambaressë
rucin i lúmello autuva ve vanwa
I lúmë utúlië cuivien
I cendelessë qualmeva,
I cendelessë qualmeva.

I sinta coivië tuluva mettan,
Qualmë tulë arrato nó polil savë,
Nancaris ilqua
ar umis órava,
ar umis órava.

Nalvë rimpa mir qualmë
Ámë hauta úcarë.
Ámë hauta úcarë.

Qui umil nanquerë ar nal ve hína,
ar umil vista coivielya,
úval tenta, ve alassëa,
i Aranië Eruva,
i Aranië Eruva.

Talumë i hyóla lamya, Aurë Namiéva
utúlië. I Námo tana immo
ar canas hínalyar Aranieryan,
mal i húna Angamandonna,
mal i húna Angamandonna.

Nalvë rimpa mir qualmë…

### Original Latin Version

Scribere probosui de contemptu mundano
ut degentes seculi non mulcentur in vano
iam est hor surgere
a sompno mortis pravo
a sompno mortis pravo

Vita brevis breviter in brevi finietur
mors venit velociter quae neminem veretur
omnia mors perimit
et nulli miseretur
et nulli miseretur

peccare desistamus
peccare desistamus

Ni conversus fueris et sicut puer factus
et vitam mutaveris in meliores actus
regnum Dei beatus
regnum Dei beatus

Tuba cum sonuerit dies erit extrema
electos in patria

And, for those like me that can’t read Latin:

### English Version

I want to write of the evil in the world
lest the time should pass unused.
The time has come to awake
in the face of death,
in the face of death.

The short life soon will end,
death comes faster than you would believe.
It destroys everything
and has no mercy,
and has no mercy.

We rush into death,
let us refrain from sinning,
let us refrain from sinning,

If you don’t turn back and become like a child
and you don’t change your life,
you won’t go into, as a happy one,
the Kingdom of God,
the Kingdom of God.

When the trump resounds, Judgement Day
has come. The judge appears
and calls the chosen ones to his Kingdom
but the damned to hell,
but the damned to hell.

We rush into death…

Hope you enjoyed it, namárië!

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Filed under Art, History, Latin, Music, Poem, Quenya, Tengwar

## Ingolë Levië Quenyanna

Hello again! This post is based on my last post, (Isaac Newton + Physics)² X Quenya = !!!. The main goals of this post are to explain the translations, as there are some really weird things there and also explain the Newton’s Laws of Motion, so important to physics. This post will require some more advanced physics notions, that I’ll introduce in the next paragraph, and also some more Quenya and Tengwar knowledge,  but nothing extremely hard.

So let’s start defining a few physics concepts. Let’s start with force, as it’s the most important object of study in the laws.

The Force a.k.a. $\vec{F}$

Force is an influence that causes  an object (or a body) to change its state, either it being a movement, direction of geometrical construction change. Here, we’re only going to use the first two changes: we’ll only treat of movement and direction changes, which requires the introduction of the next concept, the vector.

$\vec{0}$

A vector is an object with two qualities: magnitude (sometimes called length) and direction. Imagine an arrow flying away from a bow: the arrow has a fixed length and a fixed direction, which can only be changed by external means. Vectorial units are always represented with an arrow above the symbol, like this: $\vec{F}$ . It’s very important in physics, as when something is moving, it goes somewhere with a certain speed or velocity. But what’s that? Speed describes how fast an object is moving, while velocity also states in which direction it is going. In other words, it’s the rate at which a body “walks” a certain distance through time. It’s usually represented as $\vec{v}$. I shall treat them as synonyms here. But as we all know, speed isn’t always constant. When you get in a car, you have to accelerateit for it to speed up, right? Which leads to our next (and last, for now) concept: acceleration.

F***ing fast $\vec{a}$.

Acceleration is the rate at which speed changes through time, and always has a corresponding force (as will be explained later, on the second law) and is represented as $\vec{a}$.

So now we have everything (or almost) needed to understand the laws!

## Law I

Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum, nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare.
Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed.

Newton’s first law, as explained on the last post, says that speed can only be changed by a force applied. So far so good. Let’s go to the Quenya version of it:

Sanyë 1: Ilya hroa serë tápina hya úvistala leviëssë tëanna, tenna levië ahya napanna túrenen.

Let’s check that out:

úvistala leviëssë tëanna:  unchanging movement towards a straight line. See the vector there? The direction is explicit here: a straight line! This means this is a vectorial unit: it has magnitude AND direction!

levië ahya:  This one is a little tricky. If you check Quettaparma, lev- is the verb move. So you can see another application of an early defined concept: speed. Speed is the moving of a body, so levië (gerund of move) is the perfect word for that! If you go further on Quettaparma, you’ll see there’s the verb horta (speed) and the noun hortalë (speeding). Why not those? You’ll understand later on. BUT WAIT A MINUTE! That’s not what’s written there! I know! It was not a literal translation, I translated the meaning of the sentence. The meaning shall be given later.

napanna túrenen:  by an added force. Another concept here, force.

The literal meaning of my translation is the following:

Law I: Every body rests stopped or in unchanging movement towards a straight line, until speed changes by a force added.

Physically, it’s pretty much the same. Uncle Newton flourished them too much.

Let’s go to the first formula now!

First, the $\sum_{ }^{ }$. It’s the capital Greek letter Sigma (Σ), which, in math, represents a summation of many similar terms. In this case, it represents the sum of all the $\vec{F}$ forces on the body. After a lot of discussion with Erunno and Erutulco, we came to a conclusion that for Greek letters, we could use a different, more ancient alphabet…. Sarati! That symbol represents the letter w. But why? Well, Erunno did some crazy researches on the dark sides (of the force) of some weird things and found out that wō is a Common Eldarin word for together. What is sum if not putting things together? So… perfect!

Second, the force $\vec{F}$. This one is pretty straight forward. I used tinco, as it’s the first tengwa for túrë (force). But…. There is a vector there! As you can see, I added a straight line on top of it (sometimes it’s used as a nasal mark in Tengwar English – no idea on other modes), so it’ll do a similar work to the arrow upwards the “normal” arrows on the latin alphabet.

The vectorial zero($\vec{0}$) was changed to the numerical Tengwa for zero, with the vector as well.

That double arrow thingy is an “if, and only if” condition, also meaning a double implication. This means that once one condition is met, the other will be as well.

“Hey, there’s an lambë there” Yes, remember that I defined levië as speed? 😉 No vectors there, as I’m representing only the magnitude (module, if you preffer). If it had a vector, no problems.

And what about the “ú” there? Well, in the original formula,  I used k as constant (unchanging), a common notation in maths. For the Quenya version, úvistala (unchanging) was used.

## Law II

Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae, et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur.
Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress’d; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress’d.

Newton’s second law is mostly mathematics. Let’s check it out:

Sanyë II: I ahië leviéva ná nyarna napanna túrenen, ar lelyëas tentaina tëanna napanna túrenen.

Nothing new to be introduced here, let’s go straight to the literal translation:

Law II: The changing of movement is related to an added force, and goes directed toward a straight line by the force applied

Well, the importance of this law is the formula: the most important of classic mechanics. Everything else can, someway, be obtained from this.

The first part is the usual, $\sum_{}^{}\vec{F}$, nothing new here. The magic starts on the second part. The $m$ here represents mass (usually confused with weight), and is measured in grams (or, more usually, in kilograms). As you can see, no vectors here. A body has mass, it is part of it and it’s not directed towards anything. Why the “e”? Well, in Quenya, erma is a word for matter (more specifically, basic matter), and as mass is the amount of matter, perfect! The next one, $\vec{a}$, acceleration, is the trickiest of them all. There’s an hyarmen there. And the line is below it. Whaaaat? Well, the hyarmen stands for hortalë, which can be translated as speeding. Wait…. Speeding? Yes! It can be interpreted (at least in my humble opinion) as the changing of speed, which, by definition, is acceleration. And the vector line, well, aesthetics.

## Law III

Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi.
Law III: To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions.

Third law is the action and reaction one. I won’t explain it, as it’s the most known and there’s the first post to check it. Let’s go for the translation.

Sanyë III: Ilya carda illumë carë imya ar ilimya encarda: i túren atta hroar ná illume imya ar tentaina ilimyë tiennar.

Carda & encarda:  This one was found by Erunno, a life-saver! Carda means deed and comes from the verb car- (to make), so it can be used as action. The prefix en- means again, re-, so, by extension, it’s a reaction.

Imya & ilimya: Also suggested by Erunno. Imya means equal, and the prefix il- is an equivalent to the English un-, so it’s an equal and un-equal action! So, equal and opposite!

The literal translation:

Law III: Every action always makes an equal and un-equal reaction: the force of two bodies are always equal and directed towards un-equal paths.

So now let’s go to my favorite part, the formula.

The third law formula offers no new concepts, except for the use of…. I don’t know the correct word for that… Well, the small letters representing to which body the force is related. The $\vec{F}_{1,2}$  is related to the force body 1 makes on the second, and $\vec{F}_{2,1}$ is the force of body 2 interacting on body 1. As the enunciate says, they are equal and opposite, hence the minus signal. Their magnitude is equal, but they have opposite directions.

If you don’t like physics, I’m pretty sure this post was extremely boring. If you do, you probably know most, if not all of what was said here, so it was also boring. As a bonus for those of you that didn’t die in the middle of the post, check this out!

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Filed under Latin, Physics, Quenya, Sarati, Tengwar

## “In foramine terrae habitabat hobbitus”

### “In a hole in the ground, there lived a hobbit…”

There are great news for Tolkien and Linguistics fans! Some days ago it was announced that a Lingua Latina version of The Hobbit will be published in September! The famous opening phrase will be the one on title of this post (did you think I translated that?). Its nice to see that the book is translated into this language. The one that inspired the Professor so much in the creation of Quenya. It also happens to be that, this year, The Hobbit celebrates its 75th anniversary. A great tribute, don’t you think? It will be called Hobbitus Ille (it sounds great!), and the author of the translation is Mark Walker. The book is already announced in Amazon, and can be pre-ordered for £11.69. Now, I’m really eager for September to come, and put my hand on this jewel of Linguistics. Thank you Mark, for this contribution to us all!