Vinyë Quettaparmar

Vinya Quettaparma Quenyanna

†= poetic or archaic word  (e.g. †él “star”, elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word (e.g. russë “corruscation, †swordblade”), * = unattested form, ** = wrong form, # = word that is only attested in a compound or in an inflected form (e.g. #apa, #Apanóna; see AFTER below), TLT = Tolkien’s lifetime (by some called “Real Time”, as opposed to:) MET = Middle-Earth Time (or rather Arda Time, since Quenya originated in the Blessed Realm), LotR = The Lord of the Rings (HarperCollinsPublishers, one-volume edition of 1991), Silm = The Silmarillion (HarperCollinsPublishers 1994), MC = The Monsters and the Critics and other Essays, MR = Morgoth’s Ring, LR = The Lost Road, Etym = The Etymologies (in LR:347-400), FS = Fíriel’s Song (in LR:72), RGEO = The Road Goes Ever On  (Second Edition), TI = The Treason of Isengard, WJ = The War of the Jewels,  PM = The Peoples of Middle-earth, Letters = The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, LT1 = The Book of Lost Tales 1,LT2 = The Book of Lost Tales 2,Nam = Namárië (in LotR:398), Arct = “Arctic” sentence  (in The Father Christmas Letters), GL = Gnomish Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon [PE] #11 references are selective), QL = Qenya Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #12 references are again selective), VT = Vinyar Tengwar  (PE and VT being journals publishing Tolkien material edited by C. Gilson, C.F. Hostetter,  A.R. Smith,  W. Welden and P. Wynne; please refer to the individual journals here referenced to determine which editors are involved in any given case), EAC = Erunno Alcarinollo’s composition,  vb = verb, adj = adjective, interj = interjection, pa.t. = past tense, fut = future tense, perf = perfect tense, freq = frequentative form, inf = infinitive, gen = genitive, pl = plural form, sg = singular form. The spelling used in this wordlist is regularized (c for k except in a few names, x for ks, long vowels marked with accents rather than macrons or circumflexes;  the diaeresis is used as in LotR).  When s in a word represents earlier Þ(th as in “thing”) and it should be spelt with the letter súlë instead of silmë in Tengwar writing (though Tolkien himself sometimes ignored or forgot this), this is indicated by (Þ) immediately following the word in question (e.g. sanda, sanya-; see ABIDE, ABIDING below). When n in a word represents earlier ñ (ng as in “thing”) and should be spelt with the letternoldo rather than númen in Tengwar writing, this is indicated by (ñ) immediately following the word in question (see for instance Noldomar). When the word is actually spelt with ñ instead of n in the source, this is indicated by (“ñ”)immediately following the word in question (see for instance nandë #2).

Wordlist last updated August, 17th, 2011

 

<A>

A, AN (indefinite article) – no Quenya equivalent.Elen “star” may thus also be translated “a star” (LotR:94), Elda “Elf” is also the equivalent of “an Elf” (Letters:281). Sometimes Tolkien inserts “a” before a gloss to indicate that a noun rather than a verb is intended: rista “a cut” (RIS), vanta “a walk” (BAT). The word laurë Tolkien translated as “(a) golden light”, indicating that “a” has no equivalent in Quenya (VT49:47). The absence of the definite article i “the” usually indicates that the noun is indefinite (though there are exceptions – see THE).

ABANDON hehta– (pa.t. hehtanë is given) (put aside, leave out, exclude, forsake) –WJ:365

ABHOR feuya-, yelta– (loathe);THE ABHORRED Sauron (Þ)–PHEW/VT46:9, Silm:418, VT45:11

ABIDE mar– (be settled of fixed) (fut. #maruva is attested: maruvan “I will abide”); ABIDE BY himya-(cleave to, stick to, adhere);ABIDING sanda (Þ)(firm, true); LAW-ABIDING sanya (Þ) (regular, normal) (variant vorosanya with a prefixed element meaning “ever”). –UT:317/LotR:1003, KHIM/VT45:22, STAN/VT46:16

ABLE, BE; see BE ABLE

ABOVE: According to VT44:26, Tolkien in one text glosses apa as “above but touching”, but apa is normally taken as the preposition “after” instead. For “above”, the preposition or “over” may be used.

ABUNDANCE úvë;ABUNDANT úvëa (in a very great number), úmëa (swarming, teaming – but elsewhere a similar word is defined as “evil”, so úvëa may be preferred), alya (rich, blessed, prosperous) –UB, VT48:32, GALA

ABUSE (vb, evidently meaning to abuse verbally) naitya– (put to shame) –QL:65

  ABYSS undumëMC:222 cf. 215

ACCOMODATE camta(sic; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya, and while the source does not explicitly say that this word is Quenya, it is difficult to understand what other language could be intended) (to [make] fit, suit, adapt) –VT44:14

ACCOUNT (noun) quentalë (history), lúmequenta (chronological account, history); HISTORICAL ACCOUNT quentasta (any particular arrangement, by some author, of a series of reconds or evidences into a given historical account – not History as such, which is quentalë) –KWET, LU, VT39:16

ACCURSED húna (cursed). –PE17:149

ACRE resta (sown field) –VT46:11 cf. RED

ACROSS arta (athwart) (Note: arta also means “fort, fortress”; the word olla may be a better word for *“across” in Tolkien’s later forms of Quenya; see OVER) –LT2:335

ACT OF WILL nirmë –VT39:30

ACTOR tyaro (agent, doer) –KYAR

ACTUAL anwa (real, true), nanwa (existing, true) –ANA, VT49:30

ACUTE tereva (fine, piercing); ACUTE, ACUTENESS laicë (In the printed Etymologies, a similar word is also the adjective “keen, sharp, acute”, but according to VT45:25, this is a misreading; the final vowel of the adjective should be –a, not –ë. However, the conceptual validity of the adjective laica, and therefore also the corresponding noun laicë, is questionable; see PIERCING.) –TER, LAIK

ADAPT camta(sic; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya; while the source does not explicitly say that this word is Quenya, it is difficult to understand what other language could be intended) (to [make] fit, suit, accomodate) –VT44:14

ADD napan-, yantya– (augment) –PE17:146, 15:68

ADHERE himya– (abide by, cleave to, stick to) –VT45:22, cf. KHIM

ADHERING himba (sticking) –KHIM

  ADMIRAL ciryatur (only attested as the personal name Ciryatur of an admiral, but the word means *”ship-ruler”) –UT:239

ADORN netya– (trim). (Note: netya is also an adj. “pretty, dainty”.) SMALL THING OF PERSONAL ADORNMENT netil –VT47:33

ADULT (adj) vëa (manly, vigorous); ADULT MAN vëaner; ADULT MALE nér (ner-, as in. pl neri) (man) –WEG, DER

  ADÛNAKHOR HerunúmenUT:222, Silm:322

  AEGNOR Aicanáro (so in Silm:435 and PM:345; MR:323 has Aicanár) (Sharp Flame, Fell Fire)

AFFECT #ap(given as aorist stem apë) (to concern, to touch one) –VT44:26

AFFECTIONATE méla (loving) –VT39:10

AFFLICTED – be afflicted: moia– (labour). The participle *moiala may then be used to translate “afflicted” as an adjective, describing one who is “labouring” or toiling as a thrall. –VT43:31

AFTER apa (also attested in compounds like Apanónar, see below), #ep(used in compounds when the second part of the compound begins with a vowel, only attested in epessë “after-name” – see NICKNAME.) This ep– is a shorter form of epë, which means “before” of spatial relationships but “after” of time (since the Eldar imagined time coming after their present as being before them, VT49:12); apa and epë may be seen as variants of the same word. Other variant forms of apa “after” include opo and /po(VT44:36, VT49:12). According to VT44:26, the preposition apa may also appear as pa, (cf. yéni pa yéni “years after years” in VT44:35), but pa/ is in other manuscripts defined as “touching, as regards, concerning”. THE AFTER-BORNApanónar (sg #Apanóna) (i.e., an Elvish name of Men, according to WJ:387 “a word of lore, not used in daily speech”) –Silm:122/WJ:387, UT:266

AGAIN ata; AGAIN (prefix) en-, (prefix) at-, ata- (back-, re-) (AT[AT])

AGAINST: According to VT44:26, Tolkien in some documents glosses apa or as “touching, against”, but apa is normally the preposition “after” instead (see AFTER). The allative case innna is normally sufficient to express motion towards or against something. Possibly this ending can also take on the meaning of “against” with connotations of enmity and confrontation, as when the pl. allative valannar is used in the phrase *“made war on/against the Valar” (LR:47).

AGE randa (cycle) (as in “the Third Age”; not the age of a person); AGES OF AGES yénion yéni –RAD, VT44:36

AGENT tyaro (actor, doer) –KAR

  AGILE tyelca (swift) –KYELEK

AGO ; LONG AGO andanéya, anda né (once upon a time) –YA, VT49:31

AGONY qualmë (death), unqualë (death; according to VT45:24, Tolkien changed this word to anqualë) –KWAL, VT45:5, 24, 36

AH (interj.) ai (alas) Ai! laurië lantar lassi Ah! golden fall the leaves (Nam)

AIR vista (= air as substance); vilya older [MET] wilya (sky); vilma (lower air) (perhaps changed to vista, but vilma was not struck out in Etym); lindë (tune, song, singing); PUFF OF AIRhwesta(breeze, breath);UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies), AIRY vilin(breezy) –WIS, WIL/LT1:273, LIN, SWES/LotR:1157, MC:223, LT1:273

ALAS (interj.) ai (ah) (Etym also gives a word nai, but this clashes with nai “be it that” in Namárië.); also orro or horro as an “exclamation of horror, pain, disgust: ugh, alas! ow!” –Nam/RGEO:66, NAY, VT45:17

ALIKE véla –VT49:10

ALIVE cuina; BEING ALIVE (noun not adj) cuilë (life) (LT1:257 gives coina, coirëa; see LIVING) –KUY

  ALL illi (as independent noun), also ilya (all of a particular group of things, the whole, each, every) (Note: ilya normally appears as ilyë before a plural noun: ilyë tier “abll paths”); ALLNESS, THE ALL ilúvë (the whole). According to early material, ALL THE… (followed by some noun) is rendered by i quanda, e.g. *i quanda cemen “all the earth; the whole earth”. ALL THAT IS WANTED fárë, farmë (plenitude, sufficiency) –VT47:30, VT39:20, VT44:9, IL, Nam cf. RGEO:67, Silm:433/WJ:402, QL:70, PHAR/VT46:9

  ALLOW lav- (yield, grant); NOT ALLOW TO CONTINUE nuhta- (stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short) –DAB, WJ:413

  ALONE (see also LONELY, SOLE) er (one, alone, only, but, still), eressë (singly, only, also as noun: solitude) –ERE, LT1:269

ALPHABET tengwandaTEK

ALSO yando –QL:104

ALTHOUGH (or “nothwithstanding”) – Christopher Gilson argues that the word ómu occurring in an untranslated “Qenya” text could have this meaning (PE15:32, 37). If this interpretation is regarded as too uncertain, the idea expressed by phrases involving “(al)though” may be rephrased using ananta “and yet” (e.g. “although the house is small, we love it” > *i coa pitya ná, ananta melilmes = “the house is small, and yet we love it”).

ALWAYS illumë (earlier variants of the relevant text also have vora and vorë, forms Tolkien may or may not have abandoned) –VT44:9

  ALTOGETHER aqua (fully, completely, wholly) –WJ:392

 *AMANIAN (only translated “of Aman” by Tolkien) amanya (which can also mean “blessed”, VT49:41). Cf. also Úmanyar, Úamanyar, Alamanyar “those not of Aman” (the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but did not reach Aman; contrast the Avamanyar, another name of the Avari.) –WJ:411, 373, 370, MR:163

AMBIDEXTROUS ataformaitë (pl. ataformaiti is attested) –VT49:10

AMEN (Hebrew: “truly, certainly, may it be so”) násië (another form, násan, was apparently abandoned by Tolkien) –VT43:24, 35

  AMLOTH *Ambalotsë (Tolkien asterisked the word because it was not “attested”, only a possible Quenya form of Amloth. See “UPRISING-FLOWER”.) –WJ:318

AMONG imíca, mici; see also BETWEEN. –VT43:30

  AMRAS Telufinwë (meaning “Last Finwë”, not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Telvo *”Last One”. His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarussa, but this name was not used in narrative.) –PM:353

  AMROD Pityafinwë (meaning “Little Finwë”, not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Pityo *”Little One”. His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarto, or Umbarto, but these names were not used in narrative.) –PM:353

  AN see A

  ANCIENT yára (old, belonging to or descending from former times) –YA

  AND ar. In the phrase eldain a fírimoin “to Elves and Men” (FS), ar is seemingly reduced to a before f, but contrast ar formenna *“and northwards” in VT49:26. (In Sauron Defeated  p. ii, the word o is translated  “and”, but LotR, Silm and Etym all agree that the Quenya word for “and” is ar. A longer variant arë is mentioned in VT43:31.) A suffix meaning “and”,, occurs in the phrase Menel Cemenyë “heaven and earth” (VT47:11); this suffix is “normally used of pairs usually associated as Sun, Moon [*Anar Isilyë]; Heaven, Earth [Menel Cemenyë], Land, Sea [*Nór Eäryë], fire, water [*úr nenyë]” (VT47:31). AND YET a-nanta/ananta (but yet) –AR/Nam/FS, VT43:31, NDAN; the etymology of ar is discussed in VT47:31

  ANGBAND Angamando (Iron-gaol) (so in MR:350 and Silm:428; Etym has Angamanda, or in deleted material Angavanda). –MR:350, Silm:428, MBAD, VT45:6

ANGELIC POWER Vala(pl. Valar or Vali, gen. pl. Valion is attested in Fíriel’s Song); ANGELIC SPIRIT Ainu, f. Aini (holy one, god) –LotR:1157/BAL/FS, AYAN, LT1:248

  ANGELN (island in the Danish peninsula) Eriollo –LT1:252

ANGER, ANGRY, see WRATH, WRATHFUL

ANGROD Angaráto –Silm:428

ANIMAL #celva(only pl. celvar is attested, translated “animals, living things that move” in Silm appendix and WJ:341); laman (pl. lamni or lamani) (“usually only applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles and birds”); MALE ANIMAL hanu (male) –Silm:52/53,/405:3AN, WJ:416

ANNOUNCEMENT canwa (order) –PM:362

ANOTHER enta (one more). (Note: a homophone means “that yonder”). See also OTHER. –VT47:15

  ANYBODY – if anybody: aiquen (whoever); ANYONE mo (but this is also used as an impersonal pronoun “one”) –WJ.372, VT49:32

APPLE orva –PE13:116

APPROPRIATE (to a special purpose or owner) #sat– (set aside). The verb #sat– is cited in the form “sati-“, evidently including the connecting vowel of the aorist, as in *satin “I appropriate”. –VT42:20

  APRIL VíressëLotR:1144/1146

  AR-ADÛNAKHOR Tar-HerunúmenUT:222, Silm:322

  AR-BELZAGAR Tar-CalmacilUT:222

  AR-GIMILZÔR Tar-TelemnarUT:223

  AR-INZILADÛN Tar-Palantir –UT:223, Silm:324

  AR-PHARAZÔN Tar-Calion (and, as an experimental form, Tar-culu?)UT:224, Silm:324, VT45:24

  AR-SAKALTHÔR Tar-FalassionUT:223

  AR-ZIMRAPHEL Tar-MírielUT:224, Silm:324

  AR-ZIMRATHÔN Tar-HostamirUT:222

  ARCH (crescent). –KU3

  ARCTURUS (a star) Morwinyon (said to mean “the glint at dusk” or “glint in the dark”)LT1:260

  ARE see BE

ARGON Aracáno –PM:345

ARM ranco (stem *rancu-, pl. ranqui) (LT2:335 gives [there spelt ], but this is apparently rendered obsolete by a later word in Tolkien’s conception: In Etym, is glossed “lion”.) TRUNCATED ARM, see STUB, STUMP. –RAK

  ARMY hossë (band, troop) –LT2:340

  ARNOR Arnanor, Arnanórë (“royal land”) –Letters:428

ARRANGEMENT pano (plan). Note: the word also means “piece of shaped wood”. –QL.72

ARRIVE: The verb ten– is used for this meaning in one source (present tense téna “is on point of arrival, is just coming to the end”). Other attested forms are tenë (aorist; 1st person tenin), pa.t. tennë “arrived, reached” (“usually used with locative not allative”: tennen sís “I arrive[d] here”), perfect eténië, future tenuva “will arrive”. Tolkien subsequently changed ten– to men-, but the latter is elsewhere ascribed the meaning “go”. –VT49:23-24

ARROW pilin (pilind-, as in the pl. pilindi) –PÍLIM

  ART Carmë (making, production); BLACK ARTS núlë (sorcery). (The word is spelt “ñúle” in the source, reflecting the older pronunciation; in Tengwar spelling the initial nasal should therefore be represented by the letter Noldo). –UT:396, PE17:125

  ARTIFICIAL CAVE hróta (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall) –PM:365

  AS (prep) ve (like). The longer variant sívë appears to introduce a comparison with something that is near to the point or thought of the speaker, whereas tambë introduces a comparison with something remote, as in Tolkien’s translation of one line from the Lord’s Prayer: cemendë tambë Erumandë “on earth as in heaven” (“heaven” being remote – we may theorize that “in heaven as [here] on earth” would translate as *Erumandë sívë cemendë, since “earth” would represent the position of the speaker). NOTE: a homophone sívë means “peace”. The word yan, related to the relative ya “which”, is also defined “as” in one text (VT49:18). AS REGARDS pa, (concerning, touching). AS USUAL ve senwa (also ve senya, but see USUAL). –Nam/RGEO:66, 67, VT43:12, 38, VT44:26, VT49:22

  ASCENT rosta, ASCENSION orostaLT1:267, 256

  ASGARD Valinor, Valinórë (Tolkien actually uses this gloss of Valinor, as Asgard is the City of the Gods in Norse mythology) –LT1:272

  ASIDE stand aside! heca! – also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal “you stay aside!” (be gone!) LEAVING ASIDE hequa (not counting, excluding, except) –WJ:364, 365

 *ASK #maquet(only pa.t. maquentë is attested. The word is not translated, but undoubtedly means “asked”: ‘Mana i·coimas in·Eldaron?’ maquentë Elendil [PM:403]. The question itself is translated “What is the coimas of the Eldar?”, so the rest must be “Elendil asked”. Furthermore, maquentë is transparently quentë “said” with the interrogative element ma [PM:357] prefixed.) ASK FOR – see DEMAND.

ASLEEP lornaLOS

  ASSEMBLE (transitive) comya– (gather), hosta- (gather, collect) –PE17:158, MC:223

ASSOCIATE (noun) otorno (sworn brother) osellë (Þ)(sworn sister) –TOR, THEL

  ASTRONOMER meneldilLetters:386

AT , se (the form with a long vowel may be preferred since se is apparently also a 3rd person pronoun) (in).The locative case may also express “at”, e.g. lúmissen “at the times”. –VT43:30, 34, VT49:47

ATHELAS (a healing plant) asëa; see KINGSFOIL. –PE148

  ATHWART arta (across) (Note: arta also means “fort, fortress”); GO ATHWART tara- (cross) –LT2:335, 347   

  AUGER teret (gimlet) –LT1:255

AUGMENT (vb.) yantya– (add) –PE15:68

  AUGUST Urimë (so in LotR; UT has Úrimë) –LotR:1144, UT:302/470

AUTHORITY Máhan (pl Máhani is given, but seems perfectly regular). Tolkien once stated that Valar should strictly be translated “the Authorities” (MR:350), but Vala obviously cannot be used to translate “authority” in general; it was used only of the Valar themselves (WJ:404). Cf. also adj. valya “having (divine) authority or power”. Máhani was adopted from Valarin and originally probably referred to the Valar themselves. We are not told whether Máhan could or should be applied to a non-divine authority (at least it should not be capitalized if so used). Note: Máhan means *”Supreme One” rather than “authority” as an abstract. –MR:350, BAL, WJ:399/402

AUTUMN yávië (harvest in the Calendar of Imladris, yávië was a precisely defined period of 54 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition), lasselanta (“leaf-fall”, used of the beginning of winter or as a synonym of quellë; see FADING. Also spelt lasse-lanta with a hyphen), narquelion (“fire-fading” – this word from Fíriel’s Song and Etym seems to correspond to narquelië in LotR, but the latter is the name of the month corresponding to our October.) LT1:273 has yávan “autumn, harvest”, but this word may be obsoleted by yávië. –LotR:1142, 1144, 1145/Silm:439/LT1:254, DAT, FS, NAR/KWAL, Letters:382

AVENGE ahtar– or accar- (do back, react; requite) –PE17:166

  AVENUE OF TREES aldëonLT1:249

AWAKE coiva- (so in LT1:257; read *cuiva-in Tolkien’s later Quenya? Cf. the following:) AWAKENING (noun) cuivië (obsoleting coivië in LT1:257), cuivë; AWAKENING (adj) cuivëaKUY/Silm:429

AWKWARD hranga (hard; stiff, difficult). Note: hranga– is also a verb “thwart”. –PE17:154, 185

  AWAY oa, oar (viewed from the point of view of the thing, person, or place left). Oar is used of movement only, as in “I went away”. See also GO AWAY. –WJ:366 cf. 361, VT39:6.

AWNING teltassë –GL:70

  AXE peleccoLT2:346 

 

  <B>

BABE lapsë; BABY winë (stem *wini-; Exilic Quenya *vinë, *vini-), in another source defined as “child not yet fully grown”. Also winimo (Exilic *vinimo) or winicë, wincë (Exilic *vinicë, *vincë). These terms were also used in children’s play for “little finger” or “little toe”. –LAP, VT47:10, 26, VT48:7

  BACK (noun) pontë (ponti-) (rear) (QL:75) LT2:338 mentions a Gnomish word alm, said to mean “the broad of the back from shoulder to shoulder, back, shoulders”. It is stated that the “Qenya” cognate of this Gnomish word occurs in the name Aikaldamor – i.e., #aldamo or #aldamor? (Aldama appears as a word for “shoulder” in PE13:109, cf. 137.)  But this is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya.

  BACK- (prefix) at-, ata- (re-, again-), also see BACKWARDS. Cf. also DO BACK ahtar– or accar-  (react, requite, avenge); these forms represent older at-kar-. THOSE WHO GO BACK Nandor (Elves that left the March from Cuiviénen) AT BACK OF PLACE, see BEHIND. –AT(AT), PE17:166, WJ:384

BACKWARDS nan- (prefix), as in *nanquerna “turned back” –NDAN, VT49:20

BAD olca (wicked) (VT43:24). Compare ulca “evil”. The Gnomish fêg is glossed “bad” in GL:34, and this is equated with Q faica, glossed “contemptible, mean” under SPAY in the Etymologies.

  BAKE masta-MBAS

BALE OUT calpa- (draw water, scoop out)KALPA

BALL coron (stem #corn-, as in dat.sg. cornen) (globe) –KOR

  BALROG Valarauco (pl. Valaraucar, possibly reflecting an alternative form *Valarauca) (so in the Silmarillion – in Etym the Quenya form of Sindarin balrog is malarauco, while LT1:250 gives Malcaraucë) –Silm:35/425/439, RUK

  BAND nossë (army, troop) –LT2:340

  BANK (esp. of river) rávaRAMBÁ

  BARK (noun)Tolkien originally thought that parma “book” really meant “skin, bark; parchment”, with “book, writings” as the secondary meaning. But in Etym parma is derived from a stem meaning “compose, put together”, obsoleting the old etymology. –LT2:346, contrast PAR

BARN FOWL porocë (hen) –PE16:132

  BASE sundo (Þ) (root, root-word) (pl. #sundar, isolated from Tarmasundar in UT:166), talan (talam-) (floor, ground), talma (foundation, root);BASE-STRUCTURE sundocarmë(Þ) –SUD (but VT46:16 indicates that Tolkien changed the root to STUD, hence implying that sundo was originally Þundo), WJ:319, TALAM, TAL, LT:343

BATHING (noun) sovallë (washing, purification) –QL:86

BATTER palpa- (beat)PALAP

BAY (small and landlocked) hópa (haven, harbour) –KHOP

BE: Quenya uses forms of as the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns “in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another” (VT49:28). It may also denote a position, as in tanomë nauvan “I will be there” (VT49:19). PE17:68 mentions návë “being” as a “general infinitive” form; the gloss would suggest that návë may also be regarded as a gerund. Present tense “is” (Nam), pl. nar or nár ”are” (PE15:36, VT49:27, 30), dual nát (VT49:30). Also attested with various pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë “I am”, nalyë or natyë “you (sg.) are” (polite and familiar, respectively), nás “it is”, násë “(s)he is”, nalmë “we are” (VT49:27, 30). Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps intended as aorist forms (nain “I am”, naityë/nailyë “you are”); VT49:30 however lists aorist forms with no intruding i (nanyë *“I am”,  nalyë *”thou art”, “is”, nassë *”(s)he is”, nalmë *“we are”, nar “are”).  Pa.t. nánë or “was”, pl. náner/nér and dual nét “were” (VT49:6, 10, 27, 30). According to VT49:31, “was” cannot receive pronominal endings (though nésë “he was” is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen “I was”, anel “you were”, anes “(s)he/it was” (VT49:28). Future tense nauva “will be” (VT42:34, VT49:19; alternative form uva only in VT49:30) Perfect anaië “has been” (VT49:27, first written as anáyë). The form na may be used as imperative (na airë “be holy”, VT43:14, alcar…na Erun “glory…be to God”, VT44:34); this imperative na is apparently incorporated in the word nai “be it that” (misleading translation “maybe” in LotR). This nai can be combined with a verb to express a hope that something will happen (Nam: nai hiruvalyë Valimar, “may you find Valimar”) or if the verb is in the present rather than the future tense, that it is already happening (VT49:39: nai Eru lye mánata “God bless you” or *”may God be blessing you”). According to PE17:58, imperative na is short for á na with the imperative particle included. – “is” appears with a short vowel (na) in some sources, but writers should probably maintain the long vowel to avoid confusion with the imperative na (and with the wholly distinct preposition na “to”). The short form na– may however be usual before pronominal suffixes. By one interpretation, na with a short vowel represents the aorist (VT49:27). – The word ëa is variously translated “is”, “exists”, “it is”, “let it be”. It has a more absolute meaning than , with reference to existence rather than being a mere copula. It may also be used (with prepositional phrases) to denote a position: i ëa han ëa “[our Father] who is beyond [the universe of] Eä” (VT43:12-14), i Eru i or ilyë mahalmar ëa “the One who is above all thrones” (UT:305). The pa.t. of this verb is engë, VT43:38, perfect engië or rarely éyë, future euva, VT49:29. – Fíriel’s Song contains a word ye “is” (compare VT46:22), but its status in LotR-style Quenya is uncertain. – NOT BE, NOT DO: Also attested is the negative copula uin and umin “I do not, am not” (1st pers. aorist), pa.t. úmë.According to VT49:29, forms like ui “it is not”, uin() “I am not”, uil() *“you are not”, *uis *”(s)he is not” and uilmë *”we are not” are cited in a document dating from about 1968, though some of this was struck out. The monosyllable ú is used for “was not” in one text. The negation can be inflected for time “when verb is not expressed”. Tense-forms given: (aorist) lanyë “I do not, am not”; the other forms are cited without pronominal suffixes: present laia, past lánë, perfect alaië, future lauva, imperative ala, alá. MAY IT BE SO, see AMEN.  –VT49:27-34, Nam/RGEO:67, VT43:34/An Introduction to Elvish:5, VT42:34,Silm:21/391, FS, UGU/UMU, VT49:13

BE ABLE (and the English present tense can) is expressed by various verbs: pol– (to be physically able), lerta– (be free to do, there being no restraint, physical or other), ista– (know how to; pa.t. sintë), hence e.g. polin quetë “I can speak” (because mouth and tongue are free), lertan quetë “I can/may speak” (because I am free to do so, there being no obstacle of promise, secrecy, or duty), istan quetë “I can/know how to speak” (I have learnt language). Where the absence of a physical restraint is considered, the verb lerta– can be used in much the same sense as pol(VT41:6). Another way of expressing “can” involves the verb ec-, and what would be the subject in English appears in the dative case instead: Ecë nin carë sa, “I can do it” (it is possible for me to do it), ecuva nin carë sa “I may do that” (in the future). –VT49:20, 34

  BE GONE! heca! also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal “you be gone!” (stand aside!) –WJ:364

  BEACH falas (falass-), falassë (shore, line of surf), falas, hresta(ablative hrestallo is attested), fára (shore). –LT1:253, Silm:431, PHAL/LT2:339, MC:221/222/223, VT46:15

  BEAR (vb) #col(verb stem isolated from #colindo “bearer”. Cf. mel– “to love”, melindo “lover”). #Col- can also be translated *”wear” [of clothes], cf. the past participle colla “borne, worn”. BEAR FRUIT yavin (which must mean *”I bear fruit”, stem #yav-. Tolkien often employs the 1st person aorist when mentioning a verb in his wordlists.) –LotR:989, cf. Letters:308 and MEL, MR:385, LT1:273

  BEAR (noun) morco –MORÓK

  BEARD fanga (obsoleting vanga in GL:21; GL:34 has fangë “long beard”, whereas GL:63 gives poa. Neo-Quenya writers should use fanga.) –SPÁNAG

  BEARER #colindo (only attested in the pl compound cormacolindor “Ring-bearers”) –LotR:989, cf. Letters:308

BEAST (wild beast) hravan –PE17:78

  BEAT palpa- (batter) –PALAP

  BEAUTIFUL vanya (Note: a homophone verb means “disappear”),linda (beautiful/fair of sound, VT45:27), calwa, vanima (fair, proper, right) (nominal pl vanimar “beautiful ones” and partitive plural genitive vanimálion are attested). According to MR:49, Maiar means “the Beautiful”, but in Quenya this is the name of an order of spirits and cannot be used as a general adjective. BEAUTY vanessë, WITHOUT BEAUTY úvanë, adj. úvanëa –BAN, SLIN, LT1:254, LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308, LT1:272, MR:49, VT39:14

BECAUSE, see SINCE

  BED caima; BEDCHAMBER caimasan (Þ)(#caimasamb-, as in pl. caimasambi); BEDRIDDEN caila (lying in bed, ?sickness), caimassëa (sick); LYING IN BED (noun) caila (bedridden, ?sickness) –KAY/VT45:19, STAB

  BEE nier (honey-bee), nion –GL:60

  BEECH feren, fernë (pl. ferni in both cases) (LT2:343 gives neldor “beech”, but this early word may be obsolete in LotR-style Quenya.) –PHER

  BEECHEN ferinyaPHÉREN

BEFORE (prep.) epë (VT44:38, VT49:12), used of spatial relationships. Of time the word means “after” (cf. the gloss in VT42:32), since the Eldar imagined future time (time that comes after the present) as being “before” them (see AFTER). BEFORE of time may instead be expressed by (VT49:32), e.g. *cennelmet nó té cenner mé “we saw them before they saw us”. For “before” as an independent adverb (= “formerly”), it may be best to use “formerly” or derive an adverb *noavë from the adj. noa (see FORMER). BEFORE, IN FRONT OF (of spatial relationships) opo, (VT49:12)

BEGET nosta(glossed “give birth” in earlier sources), onta- (pa.t. ónë or ontanë) (create); BEGETTER #nostar (see note below), also ontar with gender-specific forms ontaro (m.), ontarë or ontari (f.) (parent). (In LotR, the form nostari “begetters, parents” occurs; sg #nostar. Nostari was changed from ontari in Tolkien’s first draft [see SD:73], so he may have scrapped ontaro, ontarë in favour of #nostar [or m. *nostaro, f. *nostarë???] Did he also reject the verb onta- in favour of nosta-?) –SD:73, VT44:7, ONO, LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308

  BEGINNING yesta (In the Etymologies there also appeared the word esse, derived from a stem ESE, ESET that was marked with a query by Tolkien because esse also means “name”. The later word yesta would suggest that he changed the stem in question to *YES, *YESET.) –PE17:120, ESE/ESET

  BEGOTTEN see FIRST-BEGOTTEN.

BEHALF – on behalf of: , followed by dative, as in the example rá men “on behalf of us, for us”. Dative pronouns may be directly suffixed to : “for us” or “on behalf of us” is also attested in the one-word form rámen. (Note: is also a noun “lion”.) –VT43:27, 28, 33

  BEHIND ca, cata, cana (also glossed “at back of place”) –VT43:20

BEHOLD cen- (see) (future tense cenuva is attested) –MC:222

BEING ëala (spirit).Pl. ëalar is attested. Eälar are spirits whose natural state it is to exist without a physical body, e.g. Balrogs. –MR:165

BEING ALIVE (noun) cuilë –KUY

  BELEGOST Túrosto (Mickleburg) –WJ:389

  BELERIAND Hecelmar, Heceldamar (lit. *”home of the Eglath”, q.v.) This is said to be the name for Beleriand used “in the language of the loremasters of Aman”. The cognate of Sindarin “Beleriand” is #Valariandë; only the form Valarianden is attested (a genitive formation from an earlier “Qenya” variant; in LotR-style Quenya it would be a dative). The latter may be the name used in Exilic Quenya. Beleriand was also called Ingolondë “Land of the Gnomes [Noldor]”. –WJ:365, LR:202, ÑGOLOD

BELIEVE sav-. This verb is used = “believe (that statements, reports, traditions, etc. are) true, accept as fact” (VT49:27; the first person aorist savin is given). Not used with a person as object (in the sense of believing that this person tells the truth); with a noun, name or pronoun as object, sav– implies “I believe that he/she/it really exists/existed”. To “believe in” someone meaning “believe that (s)he tells the truth” can be paraphrased as (for instance) savin Elesarno quetië “I believe in Elessar’s words” (lit. speaking). –VT49:27-28

  BELL nyellëNYEL

  BELLIED #cumba (isolated from sauricumba “foulbellied”). This adjective may point to *cumbo or something similar as the likely word for “belly”. –SD:68, 72

  BELOVED melda (dear, sweet). Cf. nessamelda, *”beloved of Nessa”, a fragrant evergreen tree brought to Númenor by the Eldar. –MEL, UT:456

BELT quilta (girdle) –QL:78

  BELZAGAR CalmacilUT:222

  BEND #cúna- (derived from the adj. cúna “bent”; see MC:223. In menel acúna “the heavens bending” the word is used intransitively.) –MC:222/223 cf. 215

BENEATH undu (down, under) –UNU

BENEFICIAL asëa (Þ) (helpful, kindly) (so according to a late note where the word is derived from *ATHAYA). Also (as noun) used as the name of the healing plant called in Sindarin athelas.

BENT cúna (curved; cúna is also used as a verbal stem, see BEND), raica (crooked, wrong), cauca (crooked, humped), sara (Þ)(stiff dry grass) –MC:223, RAYAK, LT1:257, STAR

BERRY piucca –GL:64 (glossed “blackberry” in LT2:347)

BERYL, possibly elessar, *elessarn– (see ELF-STONE)

BESIDE ara, also ar- as prefix. With different prononimal suffixes in VT49:25: (anni >) arni *”beside me”, astyë *”beside you” (intimate sg.), allë *“beside you” (intimate sg.), arsë *”beside him/her”, (anwë >) armë *“beside us” (exclusive), arwë *“beside us” (inclusive), (astë) > ardë *””beside you” (pl.), (astë >) artë *”beside them”, (anwet >) armet *“beside us” (dual exclusive). –AR, VT49:25

  BETWEEN 1) imbi (dual imbë). This is “between” referring to a gap, space, barrier, or anything intervening between two other things, like or unlike one another. The pluralized form imbi implies “among” of several things (ancalima imbi eleni “brightest among stars”); “in the sense ‘among’ before plurals [imbë] is usually pluralized > imbi even when a plural noun follows”. As pointed out by Patrick Wynne, imbi may also be used in the sense of “between” before two singular nouns connected by “and” (as in the example imbi Menel Cemenyë “between heaven and earth”), whereas imbë is used before dual forms, as in the examples imbë siryat “between two rivers”, imbë met “between us”. Elided imb’ is attested in the phrase imb’ illi “among all”. The form imbit is said to be a “dualized form” expressing “between two things” when “these are not named” (VT47:30), apparently implying that imbit by itself means *”between the two”, with no noun following. 2) enel (used for “between” = “at the central position in a row, list, series, etc. but also applied to the case of three persons” [VT47:11]. This preposition refers to the position of a thing between others of the same kind). 3) mitta(does the final hyphen suggest that the latter form is used as prefix, somewhat like *”inter-“?) –Nam/RGEO:67, VT47:11, 30; VT43:30

  BEYOND pella (a postposition in Quenya: Andúnë pella “beyond the West”, elenillor pella “from beyond the stars”). Genuine prepositions meaning “beyond” are han, ava (outside) –Nam, MC:222, VT43:14, VT45:6

BIER tulmaLT1:270

BIG hoa (large), túra (great) (PE17:115). See GREAT, HUGE. Other combinations: BIG BOY see BOY; BIG TOE see TOE; BIG DIPPER see SICKLE OF THE VALAR

BIND (see TIE); in more abstract sense: avalerya– (make fast, restrain, deprive of liberty) –VT41:5, 6

BIPED #attalya (Only pl Attalyar is attested.The word was used of the Petty-dwarves, q.v.) –WJ:389

  BIRD aiwë, filit (pl filici)(Note: both aiwë and filit are stated to mean “small bird”, not “bird” in general), ambalë, ammalë (= yellow bird), lindo (= “singer”, singing bird). LT1:273 also has wilin; this may or may not be a valid word in LotR-style Quenya.AIWĒ, PHILIK, SMAL, LIN

BIRTH, BIRTHDAY nosta; GIVE BIRTHnosta- (but in later sources, nosta- is glossed “beget”, q.v.) –LT1:272

BITE (vb) nac- (but in late material, the same verb is said to mean “hew, cut”),BITE (noun) nahta (note: a homophone means “eighteen”, though it is not the regular word in decimal counting: neither word must be confused with the verb nahta– “slay”.) –NAK, VT49:24

  BITTER sáraSAG

  BLACK morë (stem mori-, as in compounds like  Moriquendi), morna, morqua;BLACKNESS mórë (darkness, night); BLACKHANDED morimaitë, BLACKBERRY piucca (only glossed “berry” in GL:64); BLACK FOE Moringotto (the oldest [MET] form was Moriñgotho) (Morgoth). BLACK ARTS núlë (sorcery). (The word is spelt “ñúle” in the source, reflecting the older pronunciation; in Tengwar spelling the initial nasal should therefore be represented by the letter Noldo). –MOR, LT1:260, LotR:1015/SD:68, 72, LT2:347, MR:194, PE17:125

BLADE hyanda (share), (sword blade:)russë (corruscation) –LT2:342, RUS

BLAZE (noun:) ruinë (“a fire, a blaze”), (verb:) urya- (The stem this verb is derived from was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from the same stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it.) BLAZING HOT úrin (Úrin also being a name of the Sun) –PE17:183, UR, LT1:271

BLEND (noun) ostimë (pl. ostimi is attested). This term refers to a kind of “strengthened” elements within a stem, where a single sound has been expanded into two different elements while maintaining a unitary effect and significance; souch as s– being turned ito st-, or m being strengthened to mb. However, this may be the meaning of the word in linguistic terminology only; it may be permissible to use it for “blend” in more general senses as well. –VT39:9

BLESS manya– (“sc. either to afford grace or help or to wish it”, VT49:41), laita- (praise) (Imperative a laita and future #laituva are attested, the latter with pronominal endings: laituvalmet, “we shall praise [or bless] them”.) The continuative form mánata (*”is blessing”) does according to Carl F. Hostetter imply an aorist stem *manta (VT49:52). The passive participle aistana “blessed” (see below) argues the existence of a verbal stem #aista– “to bless”, but this verb seems etymologically connected to airë “holy” and should probably only be used with reference to more or less “divine” persons (aistana refers to the Virgin Mary in the source), who are “blessed” in the sense of having their holiness recognized and respected.

BLESSED alya, almárëa (prosperous, rich, abundant), herenya (wealthy, fortunate, rich), manaquenta or manquenta, also aman (“blessed, free from evil” Aman was “chiefly used as the name of the land where the Valar dwelt” [WJ:399], and as an adjective “blessed” the word may add an adjectival ending: amanya, VT49:41). Aman is the apparent Quenya equivalent of “the Blessed Realm” (allative Amanna is attested, VT49:26). The word calambar, apparently literally *“light-fated”, also seems to mean “blessed” (VT49:41). Cf. also BLESSED BEING Manwë (name of the King of the Valar). Alya, almárëa, and herenya are adjectives that may also have worldly connontations, apparently often used with reference to one who is “blessed” with material possessions or simply has good luck; on the other hand, the forms derived from the root man– primarily describe something free from evil: Cf. mána “blessed” in Fíriel’s Song (referring to the Valar) and the alternative form manna in VT43:19 [cf. VT45:32] (in VT45 referring to the Virgin Mary; the form mána may be preferred for clarity, since manna is apparently also the question-word “whither?”, “where to?”) The forms manaquenta or manquenta also include the man– root, but it is combined with a derivative (passive participle?) of the verbal stem quet– “say, speak”, these forms seemingly referring to someone who is “blessed” in the sense that people speak well of this person (a third form from the same source, manque, is possibly incomplete: read manquenta?) (VT44:10-11)The most purely “spiritual” term is possibly the word aistana, used for “blessed” in Tolkien’s translation of the Hail Mary, where this word refers to the Virgin (VT43:27-28, 30). Aistana is apparently not an independent adjective (like alya, mána etc.), but rather the passive participle of a verb #aista– “bless”; see above concerning its precise application. BLESSEDNESS vald- (so in LT1:272; nom. sg. must be either *val or *valdë) (happiness; but since this word comes from early material where it was intended to be related to Valar “Happy/Blessed Ones”, its conceptual validity may be doubted because Tolkien later reinterpreted Valar as “the Powers” and dropped the earlier etymology). BLESSING (a boon, a good or fortunate thing), see BOON. “BLESSINGS”, BLESSEDNESS, BLISS almië, almarë; FINAL BLISS manar, mandë (doom, final end, fate, fortune) –LotR:989 cf Letters:308; GAL, KHER, Letters:283, LT1:272, MAN/MANAD, VT43:19, 27-28, 30

BLIGHT yaru (gloom) –GL:37

BLINK tihta- (peer) –MC:223

BLOCK #tap-(stop). (Cited in the form tapë, 3 pers sg aorist; misreading “tápe” with a long vowel in the Etymologies as printed in LR: see VT46:17). The pa.t. tampë is given. –TAP/VT46:17

  BLOOD sercë (so according to Silm appendix; Etym has yár [yar-]) –Silm:437, YAR

  BLOSSOM (white) lossë, (“of flowers in bunches or clusters”:) *lohtë (emended from the actual reading loktë because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya.)LOT, LT1:258

  BLOT mottoMBOTH

  BLUE luinë (pl. luini in Nam; for “blue” Etym and LT1:262 have lúnë; both luinë and lúnë would be expected to have stem-forms in –i– given the primitive form luini, lugni), ninwa, ulban (adopted from Valarin; only used in Vanyarin Quenya),PALE BLUE helwa, BLUISH *luinincë (given in archaic form luininki, so the Quenya word would have the stem-form luininci-)  –VT48:24, Nam/LT2:340, LT1:262, LUG, WJ:399, 3EL, VT48:18, 23

BOAT luntë; SMALL BOAT venë (vessel, dish) –LUT, LT1:254

BODY hroa (pl. hroar is attested. In MR:330, Tolkien notes that hroa is “roughly but not exactly equivalent to ‘body'” [as opposed to “soul”]. Hroa is also used = “physical matter”), DEAD BODY loico (corpse); BODILY sarcuva (corporeal – this is “Qenya”); BODY-IMPULSE hroafelmë (impulses provided by the body, e.g. physical fear, hunger, thirst, sexual desire) –MR:216, 219; VT39:30/VT47:35, MC:223, LT2:347, VT41:19 cf. 13

BOLD verya, canya; BOLDNESS verië –BER, KAN

  BOLSTER nirwa (cushion) –NID

BOND nútë (knot), vérë (troth, compact, oath). –NUT, WED

BONE axo (pl axor is attested)MC:222, 223

  BOOK parma (writings), also attested with suffixes: parmastanna “upon [-nna] your [-sta, dual] book”. BOOK LANGUAGE (=Quenya) parmalambë; *BOOK-FAIR #parma-resta(attested with suffixes: parma-restalyanna *”upon your book-fair”; see FAIR #2 for further discussion). –PAR/UT:219, 460, LT2:346, VT49:39, 47

BOON: The wod mána is said to mean “any good or fortunate thing, a boon or ‘blessing’, a grace, being esp. used of some thing/person/event that helps or amends an evil or difficulty”). Hence the exclamation yé mána (ma) = “what a blessing, what a good thing!” (VT49:41)

BORDER réna (edge, margin); ríma (edge, hem) –REG, RĪ

BORN #nóna (isolated from Apanónar, the “Afterborn”) –Silm:122/381

  BORNE colla (pa.p. of col- “bear”) (worn). Also used as a noun = “vestment, cloak”. –MR:385

  BOSOM palúrë (surface, bosom of earth), súma (hollow cavity) –PAL, MC:223

  BOSS OF SHIELD tolmen (isolated round hill) –LT1:269

BOTH yúyo (also prefix – “twi-“). Yúyo is followed by a “singular” or uninflected noun, as in yúyo má “both hand(s)” –YŪ, VT46:23, VT49:10

  BOUND nauta (obliged) –NUT

BOTTLE olpë –QL:69

BOW (vb) luhta(Note: a homophone means “enchant”), #caw(cited in source as cawin “I bow”, 1st pers. aorist; in Tolkien’s later conception it would be difficult to account for w in this position, and we should perhaps read *cav– with pa.t. *canwë); BOW (noun) quinga, (also = crescent Moon), lúva, cúnë (crescent); RAINBOW helyanwë (“sky-bridge”), Ilweran, Ilweranta (LT2:348 has iluquinga “sky-bow”, but this word was obsoleted when Tolkien changed the meaning of ilu from “sky” to “universe”.) BOWLEGGED quingatelco (So it is translated, but this must really be a noun: “bow-leg” [quinga + telco]. No Quenya adjectives end in –o, unless this is the only one. Read *quingatelca for “bow-legged”? Cf. one of the other words from the same source, sincahonda, changed from sincahondo in an earlier draft – but at that time Tolkien had already omitted quingatelco and hence did not change its ending: See SD:72.) –VT47:35, LT1:257, SD 68, 72, KWIG, KU3, LT1:256, LotR:1154, LT1:271

BOWELS, see ENTRAILS

  BOWL tolpo, salpa, #salpë (isolated from tanyasalpë “Bowl of Fire”), fion (goblet – but this word reappears with the unrelated meaning “hawk” in later material) –PE16:142, LT1:292, 253

BOX colca –QL:37

BOY: the word seldo, though not clearly glossed by Tolkien, appears to be the masculine form of a word for “child”. BIG BOY yonyo (son; this term is also used for “middle finger” or “middle toe” in children’s play). –SEL-D-, VT46:13, VT47:10, 15

BRANCH *olva (PM:340 actually gives olba, a form that can only occur in the variant of Quenya that uses lb for lv). Etym has olwa, but probably this should also be *olva according to the phonology Tolkien used later (notice that the w of the Etym form is to be derived from older b, since the root is GÓLOB; later Tolkien apparently presupposed that older lb becomes either lv or is preserved as lb in Quenya). TRUNCATED BRANCH, see STUB, STUMP. –PM:340, GÓLOB

  BRAND yulma (Note: a homophone means “cup”.) –YUL cf. Nam

  BREAD massa ( masta;LIFE-BREAD (= lembas) coimas (either *coimass– or coimast-, cf. massa, masta “bread”), BREAD-GIVER (fem.) massánië(title of the “Lady” or the highest among the elven-women of any people, she having the right to keep or give away lembas bread). –VT43:18, MBAS, Silm:406/429, PM:404

  BREAK (vb) rac- (past participle rácina “broken” is attested);BREAK APART terhat- (pa.t. terhantë); BREAK ASUNDER hat- (pa.t. hantë) – but in earlier material, hat– meant “fling”, and Tolkien may have restored that meaning (see FLING). Since the status of hat– “break asunder” is uncertain, the alternative form #ascat– (pa.t. ascantë) apparently from the same root may be preferred. –MC:223, SKAT, SD:310

BREAST (chest) ambos (ambost-). –PE16:82

  BREASTPLATE ambassë (hauberk) –QL:30

BREATH (noun) hwesta (breeze, puff of air), foa (puff of breath), súlë (Þ)(spirit) (earlier [MET] form thúlë = Þúlë). BREATHE (vb) súya- (Þ); BREATHER Súlimo (Þ)(a title of Manwë; this is the literal meaning according to Silm:420); BREATH FORTH see EXPIRE. –SWES, VT47:35, 36, THŪ/LotR:1157

  BREEZE hwesta (breath, puff of air), GENTLE BREEZE vílë; BREEZY vilin (airy) –SWES, LotR:1157, LT1:273

BRICK telar –PM13:153

BRIDE indis (wife) (This word may obsolete akairis in LT1:252.) The stem-form of indis “bride” is somewhat obscure; according to VT45:37 the stem could be indiss– (pl. indissi given), but the alternative form pl. form inderi shows a curious shift from i to e as well as the more regular change from s (via z) to r between vowels. Indiss– may be preferred by writers. –NDIS/UT:8, VT45:37

  BRIDEGROOM enderNDER (cf. VT45:11 for etymology)

  BRIDGE yanwë (joining, isthmus), yanta (yoke) –YAT, LotR:1157

BRILLIANCE alcar, alcarë (splendour, radiance), calassë (clarity), ?rillë (reading of manuscript uncertain, see VT46:11), BRILLIANT alcarinqua (glorious) –AKLA-R-/RGEO:73/UT:317/WJ:369/Silm:427, GL:39

  BROAD – LT2:338 gives a word aica “broad, vast”, but this is probably obsoleted by aica “sharp, fell, terrible, dire” in later writings.

BROAD SWORD lango (also = prow of ship), BROAD-BLADED SWORD ecet (short stabbing sword) –LAG, UT:284/432

BROKEN rácinaMC:223

BROOCH tancil (pin) –TAK

  BROOD luvu- (lower) –LT1:259

BROOK nellë (GL:46 has wentë)NEN

  BROTHER háno, colloquial hanno (in children’s play, hanno is also used = middle finger). A different word for “brother” occurs in the Etymologies: toron (pl. torni) (= natural brother); cf. otorno “sworn brother, associate”. BROTHERHOOD onóro (of bloodkinship), otornassë (the latter is evidently the “brotherhood” of otornor, sworn brothers) –VT47:12, 14, TOR, NŌ

  BROWN varnë (stem varni-) (swart, dark brown) –BARÁN

  BUD tuima (sprout); BUDDING see SPRING-TIME. –TUY, LT1:269

  BUFFET taran, taramboLT2:337

BUILD #car(cited as carin “I make, build”, 1st pers. aorist – according to FS and SD:246 the past tense is cárë, but Etym has carnë; writers should probably use the latter form, not to be confused with the adjective carnë “red”. The passive participle #carna *“built, made” is attested in Vincarna *”newly-made” in MR:305.) BUILDING car (card-) (house), ampano (= especially building of wood, wooden hall; umpano in VT45:36 sems to be a variant form),ataquë (construction). BUILDER samno (Þ)(carpenter, wright) –KAR, PAN, VT45:36, TAK, STAB

  BULL tarucco, tarunco (see OX)LT2:347

BUNCH loxë (cluster). Note: a homophone means “hair”. (QL:55). BUNCHES (of flowers), see BLOSSOM.

BURDEN cólo (VT39:10)

BURDENSOME lumna (lying heavy, oppressive, ominous). Combined with the superlative prefix an-, this word should appear as *andumna because d was the initial sound of the original root. –DUB

BURLY polda (strong) –POL

BURN usta-(transitive, e.g. *Fëanáro usta i ciryar “Fëanor burns the ships”), urya- (intransitive, e.g. *i ciryar uryar “the ships burn/are burning”). The form usta– reflects the stem USU occurring in early material (QL:98), but since Tolkien changed the relevant stem to UR later, we should perhaps read *urta– for usta-. –LT1:271, QL:98, cf. the original entry UR “be hot” in Etym

BURST (passive participle) rúvina. A verb #ruv– “to burst” may be extrapolated; the root is given as RUVU “burst asunder” –QL:81

BUSH tussaTUS

  BUT: A sting of different words for the conjunction “but” are attested. In the Etymologies, the word for “but” is or nán. In Fíriel’s Song, the short variant nan appears. One text (VT49:15) uses apa for “but”, but elsewhere, this is a preposition “after”. In Tolkien’s drafts for a Quenya version of the Lord’s Prayer, he was experimenting with many words for “but”: anat, onë, ono (VT43:23; ono occurs also in another text in VT44:5/9, and shorter is attested in VT41:13), but in the final version of the Lord’s Prayer, he used mal. We cannot know how many of these alternatives Tolkien would have considered conceptually valid and which were just experimental. For the purpose of writing in Quenya, the variant is probably best avoided since it can be confused with the copula “is”; likewise, nán (and nan?) may also mean *”I am” (, na– + the pronominal endingn “I”). The Lord’s Prayer variants are less ambiguous, and mal (the word used in the final version) is perhaps the best alternative so far published. BUT meaning “only” (as in “I am but a boy”) may be rendered by er (only, one, alone, still). BUT YET a-nanta, ananta (and yet) –NDAN, LT1:269, FS, VT41:13, VT43:23

  BUTTERFLY wilwarin (wilwarind-) –WIL/MC:222, 223/LT1:273

BUTTOCKS hacca (hams) –GL:47

BY as a prep. introducing the agent in a passive construction may be rendered by (nahtana ló Turin *“slain by Túrin”, VT42:24) or by the instrumental case (turún’ ambartanenby doom mastered”, UT:138). BY meaning “near; next to” may be rendered by ara “beside” (*coa ara ëar, “a house by the sea”). BY THIS MEANS, see SO.

 –BY-mas(final element in place-names, see –TON) –LT1:250 

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CALACIRIAN Calaciryan (prob. *Calaciryand-), full form Calaciryandë (i.e., “the region of Eldamar…in and near the entrance to the ravine [of Calacirya], where the Light was brighter and the land more beautiful”) –RGEO:70 cf. LotR:252

CALL (noun) yello (shouth, cry of triumph) –GYEL, VT45:16

CAMEL ulumpë –QL:97

CAN (vb.), see BE ABLE

CANDLE lícuma (taper) –MC:223

CANOPY (vb) telta- (overshadow, screen), CANOPY (noun) telimbo (sky) –TEL, LT1:268

  CANNIBAL-OGRES Sarquindi (sg #Sarquindë?) –LT2:347

CAPE mundo (nose, snout), stem *mundu– given the primitive form mbundu. (Note: mundo also means “ox”, and as such the word may not have a distinct stem-form.) CAPE (OF LAND) nortil (stem *nortill-), said to be “only used of the ends of promontories or other seaward projections that were relatively sharp and spike-like”. –MBUD, VT47:28

CAPTAIN hesto –VT45:22

  CARANTHIR Morifinwë, short form Moryo (not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is the cognate of his “mother-name” [q.v.] Carnistir.) –PM:353

  CARCANET firinga (necklace) –LT2:346/GL:36

  CAROUSAL yulmë (drinking) (Note: a homophone means “smouldering heat”) –WJ:416

CARPENTER samno (Þ)(wright, builder) –STAB

?CARPET farma (reading of gloss uncertain; another, even more difficult gloss begins in “st-” and may possibly read “string” or “stray”) –VT46:15

CARRIER (the sign used to “carry” short vowel-symbols in the Tengwar system) anar (the word for “sun”, which would require an initial vowel-carrier in the Tengwar mode used for Quenya) –VT45:6

  CARRY – GL:38 has yulu-, but in WJ:416 the same stem (there spelt JULU) is said to mean “drink”, indicating that yulu– “carry” had probably been abandoned in Tolkien’s later Quenya. Use rather #col-; see BEAR.

  CART norollë –GL:31

 ?CASSIOPEIA Wilwarin (the identification of this constellation is not certain. Wilwarin means “butterfly”.) –Silm:426

  CASTLE OF CUSTODY this is mentioned as the approximate meaning of Mandos (stem Mandost-) –MR:350

  CAT yaulë; an earlier source also lists the word mëoi, but this word looks strange within the context of LotR-style Quenya (it would be sole singular form inoi) –PE16:132, LT2:348

CATCH (noun) atsa (hook, claw) –GAT

CAUSE (vb) tyar-; CAUSE (noun “reason”) casta –KYAR, QL:43

  CAVE  felya, rondo, rotelë, rotto (small grot, tunnel), ARTIFICIAL CAVE hróta (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall)  –PHÉLEG, ROD, LT2:347, PM:365, VT46:12

  CAVITY (hollow) súma (bosom) –MC:223

CEASE hauta- (take a rest, stop), pusta- (stop, put a stop to), tyel- (end) –KHAW, PUS, KYEL

  CELEBORN Telporno (Letters:425) or Teleporno (UT:266). (The latter is stated to be the Telerin form, while Telporno must be the form used in Noldorin Quenya. Cf. Altáriel vs. Alatáriel; see GALADRIEL.)

CELEBRIMBOR (= “Silver-fist”) Telperinquar (possibly *Telperinquár-. Cf. quárë“fist”). –Silm:429

CELEBRINDAL (“Silver-foot”, Idril’s epithet) Taltyelemna (“Taltelemna” in the printed Etymologies is a misreading, see VT45:25) Tolkien apparently abandoned the form Taltelepsa. –KYELEP

  CELEGORM Turcafinwë, short form Turco (not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is a cognate of his mother-name [q.v.] Tyelcormo “hasty-riser”; the latter name was “never used in narrative”.) –PM:352, 353

  CELOS Celussë (see UT:426)

  CENTRE endë (core, middle). (The form endë is probably to be preferred to entë in one late source.) Early material also has tólë. –NÉD, ÉNED, VT41:16, LT1:269

  CENTURY haranyë (or perhaps it means the last day of a century – Tolkien’s wording is not clear. The latter interpretation may be more likely.) –LotR:1142

CHAIN (noun) limil . Also proper name Angainor (= “The Great Chain” with which Morgoth was twice bound; LT1:249 has the form Angaino)–QL:54, Silm:59

CHAIR hamma –VT45:20

  CHAMBER sambë (Þ)(-san,samb-in compounds; cf. BEDCHAMBER) (room) –STAB

CHAMPION aráto (eminent man) –Silm:428

CHANCE (vb.) marta– (more or less = “to happen”; see HAPPEN) –QL:63

  CHANGE (vb) (transitive:) vista-, (intransitive:)#ahya(only pa.t. ahyanë is attested) –PE17:191, PM:395

CHANNEL celmaKEL

  CHANT #lir(cited in source as lirin “I chant”, 1st pers. aorist) (sing) –LIR1

CHARACTER (settled character) indómë (“also used of the ‘will’ of Eru [God]”, VT43:16). For “character” = letter, see LETTER.

CHASTISEMENT paimesta –QL:72

CHEESE tyur (tyurd-) (QL:50; tyuru– in GL:28 is actually a verb “to ‘turn’ milk”; cf. QL:50.)

CHERRY pio (this word was also applied to plums). CHERRY TREE aipio (also used = “plum tree”???) –LT2:347, GL:18

CHIEF (adj) héra (principal); CHIEF (noun) #turco (isolated from Turcomund “chief of bulls, *chief bull”; this may not be pure Quenya, but Turco appears as a the short name of Turcafinwë, Celegorm’s Quenya name – though that is translated “strong, powerful (in body)” rather than referring to more “political” power) –KHER, Letters:423, PM:352

CHIEFTAIN (or CHIEF, VT45:17) haran (stem harn-, as in pl harni) (in Etym also = king, but in LotR and other texts the Quenya word for “king” is aran pl. arani – see KING), cáno, cánu (see COMMANDER) (ruler, governor, commander) –3AR, UT:400

  CHILD hína, also vocative hina with a short vowel, used when addressing a (young) child. Pl. híni rather than ?hínar; see CHILDREN OF ILÚVATAR below. CHILD NOT YET FULLY GROWN, see BABY. “Child” as the last element in compounds: –hin (-hín-, pl. –híni), e.g. CHILDREN OF ERU Eruhínifrom sg. #Eruhin;CHILDREN OF ILÚVATAR Híni Ilúvataro; MY CHILD hinya (short for hinanya, used as a vocative only). (For “child”, Etym also has seldë; Tolkien changed the meaning from “daughter”. Possibly, seldë is meant to have the meaning “female child”, hence “girl”. Selda was apparently introduced as a gender-neutral word for “child”.) The word onna, elsewhere defined as “creature” and etymologically meaning *”something” begotten, is used for “child” in one late text (onnalya/onnalda “your [sg. and pl.] child”, VT49:41).WJ:403, Silm:387/432, VT44:35, SEL-D-/VT46:13, VT49:41

CHILDISH winima (read *vinima in Exilic Quenya) –VT47:26

  CHILL ninquë (stem *ninqui-) (pallid, white); BE CHILL (of weather) nicu- (be cold) –WJ:417 cf. NIK-W-

  CHILLY ringa (damp, cold) –LT1:265

CHIN venta –QL:101

  CHOKE quoro- (suffocate), CHOKED quorin (drowned). Verbs ino seem not to occur in later Quenya; read *quor-? It has also been questioned whether the combination quo– is still possible in Tolkien’s later Quenya. –LT1:264

  CHOOSING #cilmë (isolated from Essecilmë “name-choosing”, q.v.) –MR:214

CHRIST Hristo (variant Hrísto with a long vowel, though long vowels in front of consonant clusters do not normally occur in Quenya). Another form, apparently an attempt at translating this title rather than merely adapting to Quenya phonology the word “Christ”, was Elpino of uncertain etymology. However, Tolkien may have abandoned this form. –VT44:15-16, 18

  CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT lúmequenta (history). The unglossed term lumenyárë appears to mean *”chronological story”. –LU, NAR2

  CIRCLE rindë;CIRCULAR rinda;CIRCULAR ENCLOSURE (“especially on a hill-top”) corinRIN, KOR/LT1:257

  CITY osto (town with wall round) –OS

CLAD vainaLT1:272

CLAMOUR yalmëÑGYAL (see ÑGAL)

  CLAN nossë (family, “house”) –NŌ

  CLARITY calassë(brilliance) –GL:39

  CLASP tangwa (hasp) –TAK

CLAW atsa (hook, catch), nappa, namma (talon), #racca (isolated from raccalepta, see below); CLAW-FINGERED raccalepta –GAT, VT47:20, SD:68, 72

CLEAN poicaPOY

  CLEARED (of land) latin, latina (free, open) –LAT

CLEAVE #hyar(cited in source as hyarin “I cleave”, 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. probably *hyandë given the form of the root. CLEAVER #hyando in Sangahyando (Þ)”Throng-cleaver, Cleaver of throngs” –SYAD, LT2:342, LotR:1085 cf. Letters:425

CLEAVE TO himya- (abide by, stick to, adhere) –KHIM, VT45:22

CLEFT yáwë (ravine, gulf/gully); sanca (Þ)(split), hyatsë (gash), ciris (probably ciriss-) (crack), falqua (mountain pass, ravine), cilya (gorge, pass between hills) (so in Etym, but cirya in the name Calacirya “Pass of Light” [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] – though this clashes with cirya “ship”. An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo,not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5.) –YAG/VT46:22, STAK, SYAD, RGEO:70/WJ:403, LT2:337, 341, KIL

CLEVER finca (said to mean clever “in petty ways”) –PE17:119

  CLIFF ollo (seaward precipice) (The alternative form oldó may be archaic Quenya.) –LT1:252

  CLOAK colla (vestment, actually a past participle “borne, worn” used as a noun). GREY-CLOAK Sindacollo, Singollo (so in Silm:421; MR:217 has Sindicollo. Note that colla has become #collo because –o is a masculine ending.) (Thingol). Verb “to cloak”: fanta– (to veil, mantle) –MR:385, VT43:22

CLOSE holta– (shut); CLOSED pahta (NOT CLOSED see OPEN) –PE17:98, VT39:23

CLOTH lannë (tissue) –LAN

CLOUD fanya (white cloud; pl. fanyar is attested), lumbo (pl lumbor is attested. In LT1:259, it is stated that this word applies to a “dark lowering cloud”), ungo(dark shadow). (In ancient times the Elves probably also used the word fana [in Etym fána] for “cloud” or “veil”, but in Quenya it came to denote the visible bodies in which the Valar manifested themselves to incarnates. When fana no longer meant “cloud”, this meaning was evidently transferred to the derivative fanya, originally probably meaning “white” or as noun “white thing”.) UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies) –SPAN/VT46:15, MC:222, UÑG, Nam, RGEO:67, SYAD, RGEO:74, MC:223

CLUSTER loxë (bunch). Note: a homophone means “hair”. (QL:55).CLUSTERS (of flowers) see BLOSSOM.

COAT vacco (jacket) –GL:21

  COBWEB línëSLIG

COCK tocot –PE14:132

  CODE OF SIGNS tengwesta (system of signs, grammar); GESTURE-CODE hwermë –WJ:394 cf. TEK, WJ:395

COITUS puhta (specified to be “one act”; a more general word for “sex” could perhaps be derived by adding an abstract or generalizing ending like –) –PE13:163

  COLD (adj) ringa (so in MC:222 and LT1:265; Etym has ringë, stem *ringi-), (damp, chilly), yelwa (but this is glossed “loathsome” elsewhere). IT IS COLD Ringa ná (VT49:23). COLD (noun?) niquë, also vb niquë- “it is cold, it freezes”;COLD POOL OR LAKE (in mountains) ringwë (in the Etymologies as printed in LR, this word is cited as “ringe”, but according to VT46:11, ringwë is the proper reading),  BE COLD, CHILL (of weather) nicu-MC:222, RINGI/VT46:11, LT1:260, WJ:417

  COLLAPSE (vb) talta– (slip, slide down), COLLAPSE (noun) atalantë (downfall) –MC:223

  COLLECT hosta- (gather, assemble); COLLECTION OF LEAVES olassië (foliage). GREAT COLLECTION OR CROWD OF THINGS OF THE SAME SORT úmë (not to be confused with the pa.t. of the negative verb “not be, not do”). –KHOTH/MC:223, Letters:282, VT48:32

COLOUR quilë (hue) –QL:77

COME #tul(cited in source as tulin “I come”, 1st pers. aorist); perfect #utúlië and future #tuluva are attested (the latter with the prefix entuluva “shall come again”. Tulin may obsolete tulu- in LT1:270). COME AWAY hótuli- (“so as to leave a place or group and join another in the thought or place of the speaker”) –TUL, LotR:1003, Silm:229, WJ:368

COMFORT (verb) tiuta– (console), COMFORT (noun) tiutalë (comfort, consolation, easement) –QL:93

COMMAND (verb) *can– (so when used of persons; when used with things as object, this verb means demand) –PM:361-362 (where the stem KAN is mentioned; the Quenya verb is not directly cited as such, but seems implied by Tolkien’s discussion of how this stem was used in Quenya.) For “command” as a noun, see ORDER.

  COMMANDER cáno (“usually as the title of a lesser chief, especially one acting as the deputy of one higher in rank”, PM:345) (governor, chieftain) –PM:345, VT45:19

  COMMANDMENT axan (law, rule, as primarily proceeding from Eru). Pl. axani is attested. –WJ:399, VT39:30, 23

  COMMERSE mancalëMBAKH

  COMMUNICATION centa (as in Ósanwë-centa, Communication of Thought. In other contexts, centa must be translated “enquiry” or *”essay”) –MR:415, VT39:23

  COMPACT (noun) vérë (troth, oath, bond) –WED

COMPARE sesta– (liken) –QL:82

COMPEL mauya-; BE COMPELLED TO DO SOMETHING horya– (have an impulse, set vigorously out to do); COMPULSION maustaMBAW, VT45:22

  COMPLAINT nur (growl) –LT1:263

  COMPLETELY aqua (fully, altogether, wholly) –WJ:392

  CONCEAL halya- (veil, screen from light). In early “Qenya” there is also the word fur– (read perhaps *hur-), also translated “to lie”. –SKAL, LT2:340

  CONCEALED furin or hurin (hidden). According to Tolkien’s post-LotR ideas, the form in hu– would be preferred in late Quenya. –LT2:340

CONCEPTION (= idea, cf. VT46:6) noa (pl. nówi), (nów-). Not to be confused with noa = “former” or “yesterday”. –NOWO

CONCERN #ap(given as aorist stem apë) (to affect, to touch one). CONCERNING pa, (as regards, touching) –VT44:26

CONCH hyalma (shell, horn of Ulmo) –SYAL

  CONCLUDE telya- (transitive) (wind up, finish); CONCLUSION telma (further defined as “anything used to finish off a work or an affair”) –WJ:411

CONDITION sóma (state). See STATE. –QL:85

CONFUSED rúcina (shattered, disordered) –MC:223

CONSEQUENTLY epetai –VT49:11, 12

CONSIDERING A MATTER (with a view to decision) úvië –VT48:32

CONSOLATION (noun) tiutalë (comfort, easement) –QL:93

CONSOLE tiuta– (comfort) –QL:93

CONSONANT #pataca (only pl. patacar is attested), #lambetengwë (literally “tongue-sign”; only pl. lambetengwi is attested; this refers to consonants as tengwi or phonemes), also náva-tengwë (“ñava-“) (literally “mouth-sign”; only pl. náva-tengwi is attested; the shorter form #návëa pl. návëar was also used, but Fëanor replaced these terms with #pataca). Yet another term for “consonant” was #tapta tengwë “impeded element”. (Only pl. tapta tengwi is attested; we would rather expect *taptë tengwi with the pl. form of the adjective. The nominal pl. of the adjective, taptar, was used in the same sense as tapta tengwi.) Tolkien also notes: “Since…in the mode of spelling commonly used the full signs were consonantal, in ordinary non-technical use tengwar [sg tengwa, see LETTER] became equivalent to ‘consonants’.” Cf. also surya “spirant consonant” and punta “stopped consonant”, i.e. a consonant sign with an underposed dot to indiate that it is not followed by a vowel. –VT39:8, VT39:16, 17, WJ:396, SUS, PUT (see PUS), VT46:10, 33

  CONSPICOUS minda (prominent) –MIN

CONSTRUCTION tanwë (craft, thing made, construction, devise), ataquë (building) –TAN, TAK

CONTEMPTIBLE faica (mean) –SPAY

CONTINUAL vórima (changed from vorima) (enduring, repeated); CONTINUALLY voro (also voro- in compounds) –BOR

CONTINUOUS vórëa (enduring, repeated), also vórima; CONTINUOUS REPETITION vorongandelë (“vorogandele” in the published Etymologies is a misreading; see VT45:7) (harping on one tune) –VT45:7, LIN1

CONTINUANT the term #mussë tengwë “soft element” (only attested in the pl.: mussë tengwi) covers vowels, semi-vowels (y, w) and continuants (l, r, m, n). –VT39:17

  CONTRARY, ON THE úsië (VT49:8, 17), variant úsir, possibly abandoned by Tolkien (VT49:18); see also NO

CONTROL (verb) #tur(cited in source as turin, “I…control”, 1st pers. aorist) (pa.t. turnë)(wield, govern); IN CONTROL OF (possessing) arwa (followed by gen, e.g. *i heru arwa i nerion “the lord in control of the men”) –TUR, 3AR

  COOKED FOOD apsa (meat) –AP

COPING-STONE see FINISH.

  COPPER urus (urust-), cf. POLISHED COPPER calarus (calarust-). In the Etymologies, the word rauta was originally defined “copper”, but Tolkien changed the definition to “metal” in general. The earliers material has COPPER = tambë;OF COPPER tambina. Etym hasCOPPER-COLOURED aira (ruddy, red) –VT41:10, RAUTĀ, LT1:250, 256, 268, GAY

CORE endë (centre, middle). –NÉD, ÉNED

CORNER winca (nook) (QL:104, there written ‘winka). Read *vinca if this early “Qenya” form is to be adapted to LotR-style Third Age Quenya.

CORNFLOWER menelluin (lit. *”sky-blue”) –Pictures of J. R. R. Tolkien

  CORPOREAL sarcuva (bodily) –LT2:347; this is “Qenya”

CORPSE quelet  (pl. queletsi), loico (dead body); CORPSE-CANDLE loicolícumaKWEL, MC:223

  CORRUSCATION russë (†swordblade) –RUS

  COTTAGE LT2:336 has os(t) “house and cottage”, but this word is probably obsolete – osto means “city” or “fortress” in Tolkien’s later Quenya.

  COUNT the stem not- can be isolated from the word for “countable”, see below. It actually occurs in Etym, but is glossed “reckon” instead. COUNT UP onot- (cf. not- “reckon” – the perfect of both these verbs would presumably be *onótië), COUNTABLE #nótima (isolated from únótimë “countless, not-countable, numberless”, sg. únótima). NOT COUNTING hequa (leaving aside, excluding, except) –NOT, Nam, RGEO:67, VT39:14, WJ:364, 365

COUNTLESS únótima (pl. únótimë is attested) (numberless, not-countable, uncountable) –VT39:14, Nam, RGEO:67

  COUNTRY nórë (land, race, nation, native land, family), #nórië (only attested in a compound, in the ablative case: sindanóriello, “grey-country-from”, “out of a grey country”. –NŌ, Nam/RGEO:67

COURAGE huorë (only attested as a proper name: Huorë, lit. “heart-vigour”) –KHŌ-N

COURAGEOUS huorinqua (brave, bold), composed from: huorë (only attested as a proper name: Huorë, lit. “heart-vigour”) and –inqua adjectival ending, seen in alcarinqua “glorious” (WJ:412) from alcar “glory”. Etymologically, –inqua means “-full”, like “glory-full” in this case. Huorinqua literally means “courage-full”. (KHŌ-N) – EAC139.

  COURSE tië (line, direction, way, path, road) –TE3, RGEO:67

COURT paca (paved floor) –GL:63

COVER top(cited as aorist sg. topë)(pa.t. tompë), also untúpa-(lit. “down-roof”) –TOP, Nam/RGEO:67

  COVERING telmë (hood) –TEL

  COW (milch cow) yaxë. (An alternative form yaxi, simply glossed “cow”, looks like a plural in LotR-style Quenya, unless it is a feminine form like tári “queen” and heri “lady”) –GL:36

  CRACK ciris (probably ciriss-) (cleft) –LT2:335

CRAFT tanwë (thing made, device, construction); curwë. CRAFTSMAN tano (smith) –KUR

CREATE onta (pa.t. ónë, ontanë) –ONO

CREATURE onna;DEFORMED/HIDEOUS CREATURE ulundo (monster); VERY TERRIBLE CREATURE rauco –ONO, ÚLUG, VT39:10

  CRESCENT (arch), cúnë (bow) –KU3, LT1:271

  CREST (of wave) wingë (wingi-) (foam, spindrift). LT1:256 gives ormë “crest, summit”, but in Tolkien’s later Quenya ormë means “wrath, haste, violence, rushing”. CRESTED WAVE, WAVE-CREST falmaWIG/LT1:273, PHAL, VT42:15

CROOKED hwarin; raica (bent, wrong), rempa (hooked), cauca (bent, humped) –SKWAR, RÁYAK/VT39:7, REP, LT1:260

CROSS (vb.) langavb. “go over, pass over” –PE17:65

CROSS (noun) tarwë (crucifix); CROSS (vb.) lahta– (pass over, surpass, excel) –QL:89, PE17:92

CROSSBAR hwarmaSKWAR

  CROSSING tarna (passage, #ford) –LT2:347

CROW quáco (so in WJ:395; Etym has corco)WJ:395/VT47:36, KORKA (see KARKA)

CROWD sanga (throng, press); rimbë (host). GREAT COLLECTION OR CROWD OF THINGS OF THE SAME SORT úmë (not to be confused with the pa.t. of the negative verb “not be, not do”). –STAG/Silm:438, RIM, VT48:32

CROWN ríë; CROWNED rína;STAR-CROWNED, CROWNED WITH STARS (a name of Taniquetil) Elerrína(so in Silm; Etym has Elerína) –RIG/VT46:11 (VT confirming that the proper reading is ríë with a long vowel, not “rie” as in the Etymologies as printed in LR), EL, Silm:42

  CRUEL nwalca (Though spelt this way also in Etym, nwalca must be from older *ngwalca, for the stem is ÑGWAL. In Tengwar spelling, the letter nwalmë (< older ngwalmë) should be used to transcribe the initial nw of nwalca.)ÑGWAL

CRUCIFIX tarwë (cross); CRUCIFY tarwesta–QL:89

CRUMB mië –PE13:150

  CRUMBLE #ruxa(only part. ruxala is attested) –MC:222 cf 215

CRY OF TRIUMPH (noun) yello (call, shout) –GYEL, VT45:16

CRYSTAL maril (glass – perhaps with stem marill), CRYSTAL SUBSTANCE silima (a substance Fëanor alone knew how to make; the Silmarils were made of it. Etymologically, the word apparently means simply *”white-shining thing”, or perhaps *”[substance] apt to shine white”.) –VT46:13, RGEO:73, Silm:437

  CUNNING – LT1:253 has findë, finië, but these words may not be valid in Tolkien’s later Quenya (in Etym, findë means “tress, lock of hair”).

  CUP yulma (pl. yulmar is attested, VT21:6, 10; VT48:11). –Nam, RGEO:67

  CUPOLA coromindo (dome), telluma (altered from earlier telumë under influence of a Valarin word; pl. tellumar is attested) –Nam/WJ:399/411, KOR, KOP

CURSE (vb.) húta-, pa.t. huntë or huntanë. CURSED húna (accursed). –PE17:149

  CURUFIN Curufinwë, short form Curvo. (His “mother-name”, never used in narrative, was Atarincë.) –PM:352, 353

  CURUNÍR Curumo (Saruman) –UT:393, 401

  CURVED cúna (bent; cúna is also used as a verbal stem, see BEND) –MC:223

CUSHION nirwaNID

CUSTODY mando (safe keeping); CASTLE OF CUSTODY Mandos (Mandost-) –MR:350

  CUT (vb) rista-; venië (infinitive? stem #ven-?) (shape), CUT (noun) rista, venwë (shape). The verb nac– is defined as “hew, cut” in late material (nacin, VT49:24), though in Etym, it was assigned the meaning “bite” instead (NAK). CUT OFF (and get rid of or lose a portion:) #aucir-, (so as to have or or use a required portion:) #hócir- (Tolkien cited these verbs with what seems to be the ending –i of the aorist: auciri-, hóciri-). RIS, LT1:254, WJ:365-366, 368

  CYCLE randa (age) –RAD

  <D>

DAERON see DAIRON

DADDY (affectionate form of “father”): atto, atya (these words are also used in children’s play for “thumb” or “big toe”). The form tatanya in UT:191 seems to mean *”my daddy”. –ATA, VT47:10, 26, VT48:4; atya is a reduced form of atanya “my father”.

DAGGER sicil (knife), naica –SIK, GL:37

DAILY ilaurëa (another form, ilyarëa [read *ilyárëa?] and its archaic variant ilyázëa, was apparently abandoned by Tolkien) –VT43:18

DAINTY netya (pretty). (Note: netya– is also a verb “trim, adorn”.) –VT47:33

  DAIRON Sairon –GL:29 (called Daeron in the published Silmarillion)

  DALE nal, nallë (dell); DALE-SPRITES tavar (pl. tavarni). In Tolkien’s later Quenya, tavar means “wood” (as material). See, however, DRYAD. –LT1:261, LT1:267

  DAMP ringa (chilly, cold) –LT1:265

DANCE (verb) lilta-LILT

DANGER #raxë (pl. ablative raxellor attested). In another version of the text in question, Tolkien used #raxalë (pl. abl. raxalellor) instead. –VT44:9

  DANGLE linga- (hang)LING

DARE verya- (cf. BOLD) (see MARRY regarding a homophone) –BER

  DARK (adj.) morna (gloomy, sombre, black), nulla (dusky, obscure), lóna (Note: a homophone means “island”), lúrëa (overcast),DARK OR HIDDEN tumna (low-lying, low, profound, deep). DARK(noun) hui (fog, murk, night); DARK, DARKNESS mornië, mórë (blackness, night) mor, lúmë (Note: lúmë also means “hour, time”), lómë (stem lómi-) (night, twilight, gloom), huinë (shadow, gloom). (See SLAYER for DARKNESS-SLAYER.) DARK ELVES Moriquendi, Morimor (Lómëarni in LT1:259 is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya); DARK ONE (=Morgoth) morion; DARK WEATHER lúrë; DARK LOWERING CLOUD lumbo (pl. lumbor is attested); DARK VALE tumbo (stem *tumbu-) (deep valley) –Letters:382, NDUL, DO3, LT1:259, LT1:271, LT1:253, MOR, LotR:488 cf. Letters:308, Silm:431, MC:222 cf. 215, WJ:361/Silm:388, Nam/RGEO:67, FS, LT1:259, 269

  DAUGHTER selyë; also yendë, yen,iel (suffix, e.g. Uinéniel “daughter of Uinen” [UT:182]; this suffix may obsolete the earlier [TLT] ending –wen, mentioned in LT1:271). The stem YEL, from which –iel must be derived, was removed from Etym. However, the UT example just mentioned is from a later text, indicating that Tolkien restored –iel. Perhaps yeldë was restored as the independent word for “daughter” at the same time and is to be preferred to yendë, yen. Distinguish –riel in Altáriel (Galadriel), which does not mean “daughter” and becomes –riell– before an ending. –VT47:10, YŌ, YEL, 182/469

  DAWN ára (obsoleting órë in LT1:264; this word means “rising” or “heart” in LotR-style Quenya), †amaurëa (early day). See also TWILIGHT. –AR1, MC:223

  DAY aurë (sunlight; Etym gives arë, ari– instead). The word aurë is defined as “a day (of light), a day of special meaning or festival”; allative aurenna “upon the day” (VT49:45). Cf. also: arya (= 12 daylight hours; notice however that the word arya is assigned other meanings in late material), (= 24 hours, counted from sunset to sunset, allative rénna in VT49:45), sana (= also 24 hours, but this “Qenya” term clashes with a later demonstrative “that”), DAYTIME arië, EARLY DAY †amaurëa (dawn), DAYLIGHT: LT1:254 gives calma, but this word is defined “lamp” in LotR. LAST DAY OF YEAR quantien, FIRST DAY (meaning obscure, possibly first day of year) minyen. (In the entry YEN of the Etymologies as printed in LR, minyen is seemingly glossed both “first day” and “first year”, but according to VT46:23, only “first day” is correct.) DAYSPRING tuilëAR1/VT45:6, Silm:229/234/439, LotR:1141, LT1:250, MC:223, YEN

  DEAD firin (= dead by natural cause), qualin (related to qualmë “agony, death” and probably has darker connotations than firin), vanwa (departed, lost, past, gone, vanished, no longer to be had), hessa (withered). DEAD BODY loico (corpse) –KWAL, PHIR, MC:223, LT1:255, WJ:366

DEAL WITH mahta- (fight, handle, manage, wield, wield a weapon); pa.t. mahtanë is attested. –MAK/VT39:11, VT47:6, 18, 19, VT49:10

  DEAR melda (beloved), melin, moina (familiar), #melya (isolated from Melyanna “dear gift”, Melian’s Quenya name), valda (worth, worthy). Cf. also the “suffix of endearment” –ya mentioned in UT:418: Anardilya *”dear Anardil” (UT:174).DEAR KINSMAN (form of address) tyenya (literally “my thou”, with tye as an intimate 2nd person pronoun reserved for relatives and close friends). MEL, MOY, Silm:434, GL:23, VT49:51

DEATH qualmë, unqualë (agony; according to VT45:24, Tolkien changed this word to anqualë), #fírië, #effírië (basically “expiration”, attested with the endingmmo in fíriemmo, effíriemmo “of our death”), nuru, older ñuru (personalized Nuru = Mandos), fairë (natural death [as act]) (Note: fairë also means “radiance” and “phantom”, and even [in LT1:250] “free”), urdu –KWAL/LT1:264, VT43:34, ÑGUR/VT46:4, PHIR, LT2:342

DEBT #rohta (attested in pl. form rohtar). Used in draft version of Tolkien’s Quenya Lord’s prayer, this word may refer to moral rather than financial “debt”; it may also cover “trespass”. This is probably also true of variant words for “debt” occurring in other versions: #lucassë, #lucië, #luhta (all are attested with the endingmmar to express “our debts/trespasses”). –VT43:19

DEBTOR #rocindo, #rucindo (isolated from rocindollomman, rucindollomman “from our debtors”). Used in one of the draft versions of Tolkien’s Quenya version of the Lord’s Prayer, the “debtors” denoted by this word may be sinners rather than simply people owing others money. Another version of the Prayer has #lucando or #lucindo as the word for “debtor” or “one who trespasses” (attested in the plural: lucandor, lucindor). –VT43:20

DECISION, see CONSIDERING A MATTER (with a view to decision)

DECIMAL SYSTEM (in counting) maquanotië. Another source gives a word for “decimal system” as caistanótië, incorporating caista “10th”, but since Tolkien later decided that the initial sound of words having to do with “10” should be qu– rather than c-, we must apparently read *quaistanótië. But maquanótië (a form requiring no changes) may be preferred. –VT47:10, VT48:11

DEED carda –PE17:51

DECLIVITY pendë (downslape, slope) –PEN

DEEP núra, tumna (low-lying, low, profound, dark or hidden). DEEP POOL lón, lónë (pl. lóni given) (river-[?feeding] well), DEEP VALLEY tumbo (dark vale); DEEP VALE imbë (dell) (Note: imbë is also one form of the preposition “between”); DEEP SHADOW huinë (gloom). –NŪ, TUB, VT48:28, VT45:18, VT41:8

  DEFORMED CREATURE ulundo (hideous creature, monster) –ÚLUG

DELIVER (= *save) etelehta– (the alternative verb etrúna-, eterúna– was possibly abandoned by Tolkien; see FREE [verb]). –VT43:23, VT44:9

DELL imbë (deep vale) (Note: imbë is also the preposition “between”),nal, nallë (dale) –VT45:18, LT1:261

DEMAND can– (so when used with things as object, in effect = ask for; otherwise command, order) –PM:361-362 (where only a stem KAN is mentioned)

DEMON rauco (pl. #raucar,isolated from Valaraukar (Valaraucar) “Balrogs”. LT1:250 gives araukë; WJ:415 has rauco and arauco, defined as “a powerful, hostile, and terrible creature”.) See also ORC. –RUK, Silm:436, WJ:415

  DENTAL SERIES tincotéma (t-series) –LotR:1154

  DENY lala –LA (Note: a homophone means “laugh”, but the past tense forms may differ. See LAUGH.)

DEPART #av– (cited in the form avin “he departs”, read “I depart” in LotR-style Quenya), pa.t. ambë. Also vanya- (pa.t. vannë). (The latter verb Tolkien may have been abandoned in favour of auta-; see PASS.) Lendë pa.t. of lelya/lenna “go” is also glossed as “departed”. DEPARTED (adj) vanwa (gone, vanished, lost, past, no longer to be had, dead) –QL:33, WAN, LED cf. VT45:27, WJ:366, Nam

DEPRIVE OF LIBERTY avalerya– (bind, make fast, restrain) –VT41:5, 6

DEPRIVED #racina (only pl. racinë is attested) (stripped); DEPRIVED OF úna (destitute, forlorn); DEPRIVED SIGN #racina tengwë (only pl. racinë tengwi is attested). Also translated “stripped sign”, this was in early Elvish analysis of Quenya the term for a consonant with no following vowel; the vowel was held to have disappeared or been omitted. –VT39:16, 14

  DESCENDANT indyo (grandchild) (Indyo looks like Vanyarin Quenya; the combination ndy became ny in Noldorin Quenya. The Noldor likely used the form *inyo.) MALE DESCENDANT yondo (son) (In LT2:344, it is said that yondo usually meant “(great) grandson”, but in LotR-style Quenya it simply means “son”.) –ÑGYO(N)

DESERT erumë (cf. Eruman a desert north-east of Valinor, though Eruman is used in an entirely different way elsewhere; see HEAVENS.) –ERE

  DESERTED erda (solitary) –LT1:269

  DESIRE (vb) #mer-(cited in the form merë, evidently the 3rd person aorist; pa.t. given as mernë)(want, wish). The stem YES yields a word yesta– “desire” (which may however be confused with yesta “beginning”). DESIRE (noun) írë, náma (= “a desire” or “a judgement”), námië (= “a (single) desire” or “a (single) judgement”), milmë (greed). (Note: írë also means “when”.) See SEXUAL DESIRE for a term that possibly has this meaning. DESIREABLE írima (loveable), DESIRER Irmo (name of a Vala). DESIRING TO START mína (eager to go), also verb DESIRE TO GO IN SOME DIRECTION mína– (to wish to go to a place, make for it, have some end in view). –MER, ID, VT41:13, MIL-IK, YES/VT46:23, WJ:403, VT39:11

DESPISE #nattir –VT44:8

DESTINE martya-; DESTINY maranwëMBARAT

DESTITUTE úna (deprived of, forlorn); DESTITUTE OF ú (usually followed by genitive: ú calo *”destitute of light [cala]”) (without). –VT39:14

  DETERMINANT VOWEL sundóma (lit. *”base-vowel, root-vowel”. Christopher Tolkien notes: “Very briefly indeed, the Quendian consonantal base or sundo was characterized by a ‘determinant vowel’ or sundóma: thus the sundo KAT has a medial sundóma ‘A’, and TALAT has the sundóma repeated. In derivative forms the sundóma might be placed before the first consonant, e.g. ATALAT.”) –WJ:319

  DEVICE tanwë (craft, thing made, construction); SKILLFUL [?DEVICE Tolkien’s handwriting was illegible] curo (curu-) –TAN, VT41:10

DEVISE auta- (originate, invent) –GAWA

DEW rossë (fine rain, spray), rin. DEWY nítë (stem *níti-) (moist) –ROS/Letters:282, LT1:265, NEI

DEXTER forya (right), DEXTEROUS formaitë (right-handed) –VT46:10, PHOR

DIACRITIC tehta (mark [in writing], sign) (In LotR:1155, the word is applied to the supralinear vowel-marks of Fëanorian writing, and pl. tehtar is attested.) –TEK, LotR:1155

DIALECT – Tolkien notes that the word lambë “tongue” was originally “nearer to our ‘dialect’ than to ‘language’, but later when the Eldar became aware of other tongues, not intelligible without study, lambe naturally became applied to the separate languages of any people or region” (WJ:394). Thus, lambë can hardly be used for “dialect” in Exilic Quenya. Cf. also VT39:15, where lambë is said to mean “the language or dialect of a particular or people”.

  DICTUM eques (pl. equessi) (proverbial dictum, quotation, saying) –WJ:392

DIE fir- (fade) –MC:223, VT43:34

DIFFICULT hranga (hard; stiff, awkward). Note: hranga– is also a verb “thwart”. –PE17:154, 185

DIG sapa– or sap-, pa.t. sampë –PE16:145

DIGIT: For a common term for “finger” and “toe”, see TIP.

  DIPHTHONG ocamna; in the source providing this word Tolkien rejected his earlier form osamnar (pl.); compare the Etymologies form #samna (only pl samnaris attested. Distinct in Tengwar spelling from samna “wooden post”, that is spelt with initial súlë instead of silmë). Another word for “dipthong” is given as ohlon (pl. ohloni is attested); the latter term was used of vocalic diphthongs and “consonantal diphthongs” (like mb) alike. –VT44:13, 14, SAM, VT39:9, VT48:29

  DIM TO SEE néca (vague, faint) (Pl nécë is attested) –MC:223, 222

DIMNESS mordo (shadow, obscurity, stain, smear) –VT45:35, MOR

DIRECT TOWARD (or “be directed toward”) tenta, pa.t. tentanë (perhaps in the sense “directed toward”, transitive, attested in the phrase tentanë numenna “pointed westward”), also tenantë (perhaps in the sense “was directed toward”, intransitive). Used transitively, the verb can also mean “go forth towards” (with the thing approached as direct object). –VT49:23

  DIRE aica (fell, terrible, sharp) –PM:347

  DIRECTION tië (course, line, pathway, road); DESIRE TO GO IN SOME DIRECTION mína– (to wish to go to a place, make for it, have some end in view). – TE3/RGEO:67, VT39:11

DIRTY vára (soiled) –WA3

DISAPPEAR vanya- (pa.t. vannë. Note: a homophone of vanya means “beautiful”)(go, depart) –WAN

DISCOLOURED púrëa (smeared) –MC:223

  DISEMBODIED SPIRIT see SPIRIT

DISGUST feel disgust at feuya- (abhor). –PHEW/VT46:9

DISGUSTING, cf. LOATHSOME

  DISH venë (small boat, vessel) –LT1:254

  DISORDERED rúcina (confused, shattered) –MC:223

DISPLAY (verb) apanta– (pa.t. apantanë, apantë) (reveal), (noun) apantië –QL:34

DISTRIBUTE IN EVEN PORTIONS etsat-, estat(cited without a final hyphen in the source, but this would seem to be a verb, and presumably Quenya). –VT48:11

  DIVIDE IN MIDDLE perya- (halve) (After perya, a word perinais mentioned; it is undefined but must be the corresponding past participle: *”divided in middle, halved”.) –PER

DIVINE valaina (= “of or belonging to the Valar”, probably not to be used with reference to the One who is above them), Eruva (adj. referring to the divinity of Eru himself), DIVINITY valassë –BAL, VT44:18

DIVISION asta (part, especially one of other equal parts; asta is often used = “month” as a division of the year). –VT48:11

DO #car– (make, build; see MAKE for various attested forms of this verb); NOT DO #um(cited in the form umin “I do not”, 1st pers. aorist; also short uin) (pa.t. úmë, not to be confused with a noun meaning “collection, crowd”). This verb is also used = “not be”, see BE concerning this and other verbs for “not do, not be”.DO NOT! (imperative) vá! (also = I will not);DON’T áva, avá, alalyë (the last form incorporates the ending –lyë “thou”, hence “do not thou [do something]”). DON’T DO IT! áva carë! SET VIGOROUSLY OUT TO DO horya– (be compelled to do something, have an impulse)  DO BACK ahtar– or accar- (react; requite, avenge) –KAR, UGU/UMU, WJ:371, VT44:8, VT45:22, PE17:166

  DOER tyaro (actor, agent) –KYAR

DOG huo, roaKHUG, VT47:35

DOME telluma (pl. tellumar is attested) (cupola), coromindo (cupola) –Nam/WJ:399, KOR

  DON’T áva, avá; DON’T DO IT! áva carë! –WJ:371

DOOM manar, mandë (final end, fate, fortune, final bliss); umbar- (umbart-) (fate). See below concerning *anan in Rithil-Anamo. In the story of Túrin Turambar, it seems that ambar means “doom”: Turambar is said to mean “Master of Doom”, and Nienor even uses the word in the instrumental case: ambartanen “by doom”. Similarly, LT2:348 gives ambar “Fate”. But in Etym, ambar means “earth”, and LotR Appendix E confirms that “fate” is umbar. DOOM RING Máhanaxar (a foreign word in Quenya, adopted and adapted from Valarin, also translated as:) Rithil-Anamo “Ring of Doom”, name of the place where judgement was passed in Valinor (hence Anamo as genitive “of Doom”, nominative probably *anan with stem anam-, otherwise but less likely *anama – this seems to be “doom” in the sense of judgement or juridical justice, since the root is NAM as in nam– “to judge”). –MAN/MANAD, MBARAT/VT45:5, Silm:261, 269, LotR:1157, WJ:399, WJ:401

DOOR, see GATE; *DOOR OF NIGHT: the translation Ando Lómen is given in VT45:28 (citing a deleted entry in the Etymologies). Since Tolkien later decided that the genitive ending should beo rather thann, and moreover equipped lómë “night” with the stem-form lómi-, we should perhaps read *Ando Lómio.

  DORIATH #Lestanórë (only gen. Lestanórëo is attested) –WJ:369

  DORLÓMIN LóminórëWJ:145

DOT pica (small spot), tixë (tiny mark, point), amatixë (point over the line of writing; variant amatexë in VT46:19), unutixë (point under the line of writing; the initial element unu– was misread as “nun-” in the Etymologies as printed in LR, see VT46:19) –PIK, TIK/VT46:19

DOUBLE (prob. adj) atwa, tanta; DOUBLE (vb) tatya- (repeat). (Note: tatya also means “second”.) –AT(AT), TATA

DOUGH maxëMASAG

DOVE cucuaKŪ (in the Etymologies as printed in LR, this noun is erroneously split into two words, “ku” and “kua” instead of “kukua”; see VT45:24)

  DOWN undu (under, beneath); DOWN-FALL atalantë, atalantië (collapse); DOWN-FALLEN atalantëa(pl atalantië is attested) (ruinous); DOWN BELOW (adv.) nún (underneath);”DOWN-LICK” (i.e., cover completely)  #undulav- (only pa.t. undulávë is attested) –UNU, NŪ, MC:222, 223/Letters:347, RGEO:67/Nam

DOWNSLOPE pendë (slope, declivity) –PEN/PÉNED

DRAGON lócë (serpent, snake; “so do the Eldar name the worms of Melko[r]”, LT2:85), angulócë, fenumë; WINGED DRAGON rámalócë; FIRE-DRAGON urulócë (pl. Urulóci is attested in Silm:138, there capitalized; surprisingly, Urulóci is used as a singular form in Silm:255); SPARK-DRAGON fëalócë; FISH-DRAGON lingwilócë (sea-serpent) –LOK; cf. ANGWA, LT2:341, RAM, UR, PHAY, LIW

  DRAKE (LT2:340) see DRAGON

 DRAUGHT #yulda (only pl. yuldar is attested), suhtoNam, SUK

  DRAW #tuc(cited as tucin “I draw”, 1st pers. aorist), saca– (pull – but a homophone means “search”), DRAW WATER calpa- (bale out, scoop out); DRAWING #halmë (isolated from Turuhalmë “Log-drawing”, q.v.); DRAW NEAR: see IMPEND concerning Tolkien’s translation of  “winter has drawn near”. –TUK, KALPA, VT43:23, LotR:270

  DREAD (verb) aista-GAYAS

  DREAM (noun) olor, olórë, lor; DREAM or VISION olos (olor– for older oloz-, as in the archaic pl. olozi, later olori). DREAMY olosta, olórëaLOS, LT1:259, LotR:488 cf. Letters:308, UT:396

DREAM (verb) óla– (said to be “impersonal”, probably meaning that the dreamer is mentioned in the dative rather than the nominative: *Óla i Eldan, “the Elf dreams”) –UT:396

DRESSED LEATHER alu –QL:30

  DRINK (vb) #suc(cited in source as sucin “I drink”, 1st pers. aorist); DRINK OF THE VALAR limpë (so glossed under LIP; “drink of the fairies” in LT1:258) or míruvórë (LT1:261); DRINKING yulmë (carousal) (Note: a homophone means “smouldering heat”); DRINKING-VESSEL yulma (cup), sungwa. –SUK, WJ:416/Nam

  DRIP lipte-LT1:258

  DROP (noun) limba; LITTLE DROP liptëLIB, LT1:258

  DROWNED quorin (choked) –LT1:264

  DROWSY lorda (slumbrous) –LT1:259

  DRÛ (wose), DRÚADAN Rúatan (pl. Rúatani is given but seems perfectly regular) –UT:385

  DRY (prob. adj not vb) parca; VERY DRY amparca –PÁRAK, VT45:5

  DRYAD tavaro, tavaron (m.), tavaril (f.) (compare the tavarni or “dale-sprites” in Tolkien’s earlier material), nandin (further defined as “fay of the country”) –TÁWAR, LT1:261

  DUILIN Tulindo; HOUSE OF DUILIN Nossë Tuilinda (Tuilinda must be an adjectival form of Tuilindo) –LT2:338

  DÚNEDAIN NúnataniWJ:386

  DUSK histë (also hísë, but this clashes with a word meaning “fog, mist”), lómë (stem lómi-) (night, gloom, darkness, twilight) –LT1:255

  DUSKY nulla (dark, obscure) –NDUL

DUST astoÁS-AT

  DWARF Nauco (pl. Naucor is attested; LT1:261 gives nauca instead of nauco), Norno (Naucalië, Nornalië = the whole people of the Dwarves) Casar (pl. Casari or Casári; partitive plural Casalli; the whole people of the Dwarves being called Casallië. According to WJ, Casar – Quenyaized form of Dwarvish Khazâd – “was the word most commonly used in Quenya for the Dwarves”. Nauco “stunted one” and norno “thrawn one” are less polite words for “dwarf”; yet norno is stated to be “the more friendly term”. But the Dwarves themselves would definitely prefer Casar.) PETTY-DWARVES Picinaucor, Pitya-naucor (lit. *”small dwarves”), Attalyar (lit. “Bipeds”). DWARROWVAULT Casarrondo (Khazad-dûm) –NAUK, WJ:388, 389

  DWELLER mardo –LT1:251

DWELLING (noun) mar (mard-) (home), also már; DWELLING (adj) #farnë (a pl form? Sg farna? Only attested in the compound orofarnë “mountain-dwelling”. Note: farnë is also the pa.t. of farya- “suffice”, as well as a noun “foliage”); DWELLING-PLACE nórë (land, region where certain people live, nation, native land, family); DWELLING UNDERGROUND hróta (artificial cave, rockhewn hall). The word ambar, usually translated “world”, is also associated with “home, dwelling” in one source. –VT45:33, 46:13, cf. LT1:251, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224, VT47:6, NDOR, PM:365, VT46:13

DWINDLE píca- (part. pícala is attested) (lessen) –MC:223, 222                

 

  <E>

  EACH ilya (every, all of a particular group of things), in early material also máca (a very early “Qenya” word of doubtful authority in Tolkien’s later conception) –VT39:20, GL:41

EAGER TO GO mína– (desiring to start) –VT39:11

EAGLE soron, sornë (Þ)(pl. sorni) (So in Etym; Letters:427 has sorno, thorno, LT1:266 also has sor. Soron/sorno  obsoletes ea, earen in LT1:251 and LT2:338 – besides, ëa means “is, exists” in Tolkien’s later Quenya.) KING OF EAGLES Sorontur, “EAGLE-HORN” (a great height in Númenor) SorontilTHOR, Letters:427, UT:465

EAR: The form lár in the entry LAS2 in the Etymologies appears to mean “ear”, though the wording is not quite clear.

  EARLY arinya; EARLY DAY †amaurëa (dawn); EARLY MORN tuilë (dayspring, spring-time) –AR1, MC:223, TUY      

  EARTH cemen (soil). (Note: at the time Tolkien wrote Etym, he thought of cemen as the genitive of cén, but later cemen evidently became the nominative form, as it had been in earlier writings [LT1:257]. In Silm:433, it is said that cemen [kemen] refers to “the Earth as a flat floor beneath menel, the heavens”. LT1:257, reproducing early material, also has cemi “earth, soil, land” and Kémi “Mother Earth”.) Locative cemendë “on earth” in VT43:17. HEAVEN AND EARTH Menel Cemenyë (VT47:11). EARTH-QUEEN Kementári (Yavanna’s title); EARTHEN, OF EARTH cemna. (LR:363 gves “kemina”, but according to VT45:19, this is a misreading for “kemna” in Tolkien’s manuscript.) EARTH (= world) Ambar (world) (Tolkien equated Ambar with Oikoumene, a Greek word denoting “world” considered as “the inhabited world of Men”. But ambar also seems to mean “doom”, q.v. MR:337 (cf. WJ:419) has Imbar instead of Ambar; the literal meaning of both words is said to be “habitation”) EARTH-DWELLERS –LT2:343 gives indi, rendered “earthdwellers” and said to be another word for “men”, but this is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya. –KEM/Silm:433/LT1:257/VT44:34, MBAR cf. Letters:283 or SD:409

EASEMENT (noun) tiutalë (comfort, consolation) –QL:93

  EAST rómen (allative Rómenna as a region of Númenor and ablative Rómello in Namárië are capitalized), róna; EASTERN rómenya (Entar, Entardar “Outer Lands, Middle-earth” is also glossed as “East” once, as opposed to the Blessed Realm of the West.) The words órë “dawn, Sunrise, East” and its corresponding adjective órëa (LT1:264) are probably not valid words in LotR-style Quenya; see DAWN. Neither can Ostar “East” be a valid word; see GATE. EAST-VICTOR Rómendacil (one of the Kings of Gondor) EAST-LANDS Orrostar (a region in Númenor). EAST-HELPER (masc. name) Rómestámo, Róme(n)star (so in PM:384, 391; probably ?Rómenstar must always become Rómestar, but Tolkien cited the form as Róme(n)star to indicate the connection with rómen “east”) –RŌ/LotR:1157, UT:463, Nam, EN, LotR:1075, 1081, UT:165, 459, PM:384, 391)

  EAT mat-, mata– (pa.t. mantë is given), future-past matumnë “was going to eat”MAT, VT39:7, VT48:32

EBB (noun) nanwë (lowtide), EBB-TIDE lanwë (stem *lanwi– given primitive form danmi) –VT48:26, 32

  ECHO láma (ringing sound – so in Etym, but see SOUND), nalláma (In Etym, the second a of the latter word has an undefined diacritic here represented by ´.)  ECHOING lámina –LAM

  EDDY hwinya- (swirl, gyrate); hwindë (whirlpool) –SWIN

  EDGE réna, rímaREG, RĪ

  EGLATH (or EGLAIN, EGLADHRIM) Heceldi (the “Forsaken” Elves, especially the Eldar left in Beleriand; sg Hecel is given. MR:170 has Ecelli.) –WJ:365 cf. Silm:68

  EIGHT tolto (alternative form toldo). For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. EIGHTH toltëa, toldëa. Fraction ONE EIGHTH tolosta, tosta, tolsat. –TOL1-OTH/OT, VT42:25, 31, VT48:6, 11

EIGHTEEN toloquë; in duodecimal counting, the word nahta occurs (Note: a homophone means “bite”, as noun.) For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. –VT48:21, PE14:17/VT47:42

EITHER…OR: Christopher Gilson interprets a phrase involving a double varvar as having this meaning in one early (untranslated) text; notice that var was a conjunction “or” in Tolkien’s early “Qenya”. –PE15:32, 39, cf. QL:100

  ELBOW ólemëLT1:258

  ELEPHANT andamundaMBUD

  ELEVEN minquë. For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. Fraction ONE ELEVENTH minquesta. –MINIK-W-, LT1:260, VT48:6; unorthodox spelling “minkwe” in VT48:7, 11

  ELF quendë (a technical, generic term, seldom used in the sg; pl Quendi is the usual form; there are gender-specific forms quendu m. and quendi f., but they seem to be rare; pl. forms quendur, quendir are attested), Elda (originally generic, but later [MET] used of Elves of the Three Kindreds [Noldor, Vanyar, Teleri] only. That was at least the proper usage: Elda was the normal word for “elf” in Valinor, since all Elves there were Eldar, and quendë became a word of lore. An archaic variant of Elda was Eldo.) With generic reference, the pl. Eldar has no article and is used to eman “Elves, The Elves, All Elves”; i Eldar with the article means “the Elves” with reference to some particular individuals previously mentioned. The partitive plural Eldali “Elves, some Elves” is also attested (VT49:8).ELVES OF AMAN Amanyar (sg #Amanya), ELVES WHO REFUSED TO JOIN IN THE WESTWARD MARCH (from Cuiviénen) Avari (sg Avar in WJ:371, VT47:13, 24; Avar or Avaro in Etym), also called Avamanyar “those who did not go to Aman, because they would not” (distinguish Úmanyar, Úamanyar, Alamanyar “those who did not in the event reach Aman”, though they did join in the march from Cuiviénen; these are also called Heceldi or Ecelli, see EGLATH). See also DARK ELVES, GREEN-ELVES, GREY-ELVES, HIGH-ELVES, LIGHT-ELVES, SEA-ELVES, LITTLE ELF. Cf. alsoELVENHOME Eldamar, Elendë. ELF-PEOPLE Eldalië, ELVISH Eldarinwa(adj only, pl. Eldarinwë attested in VT47:14; but “Elvish” meaning Elvish language is simply Eldarin. Properly, these words for “Elvish” apply to the Tree Kindreds only, not to all the Quendi.) Quenderin (“Elvish” referring to all the Quendi, “Quendian”; this remained a learned word) –WJ:361/KWEN(ED), MR:229 ELED, Silm:424, AB/WJ:371/Silm:65/MR:163, WJ:363, Silm:23/392, MR:415, WJ:407

 ELF-FRIEND Elendil (actually meaning *”star-friend”. Tolkien notes: “It is not surprising that the Edain…found it difficult to discern whether words and names containing the element el referred to the stars or to the Elves. This is seen in the name Elendil, which was meant to bear the sense “Elf-friend”. Properly in Quenya it meant ‘a lover or student of the stars’… ‘Elf-friend’ would have been more correctly represented by Quen(den)dil or Eldandil.”) –WJ:410 

 ELF-LOVER (or, “Elf-friend”) #Eldameldo (pl. Eldameldor in WJ:417). Compare FRIEND.

 ELF-STONE Elessar (Aragorn’s royal name), stem *Elessarn-, as in the genitive Elesarno (VT49:28, read *Elessarno?) The literal meaning may seem to be Star-stone rather than Elf-stone – but the Edain sometimes confused elen “star” and elda “elf”. Cf. Elendil; see ELF-FRIEND. – As a common noun, elessar or “elf-stone” may signify “beryl” (in the chapter Flight to the Ford in the LotR, Aragorn finds “a single pale-green jewel” and declares: “It is a beryl, an elf-stone”). –LotR:395, 897

  ELM-TREE alalmë, lalmë; LAND OF ELMS Alalminórë (Warwickshire) –ÁLAM/LT1:249, LÁLAM

ELONGATED taina (stretched, elongated, extended) –VT39:7

ELROS Elerossë –PM:348

  EMBER yúla (smouldering wood) –YUL

  EMINENT minya (prominent; minya is basically the ordinal “1st”); EMINENT MAN aráto (champion) –VT42:24, 25; Silm:428

  EMIT LIGHT faina-PHAY

EMOTION felmë (impulse) –VT41:19

EMPTY lusta (void), cumnaLUS, KUM

  ENCHANT luhta- (Note: a homophone means “bow”); ENCHANTMENT lúcë –LUK

ENCIRCLE: Early “Qenya” material has a verb qilti– “gird, encircle” (QL:78); read perhaps *quilta– if the verb is to be adapted to Tolkien’s later Quenya (cf. the noun quilta “belt”). See also GO ROUND (under entry for GO) concerning the verb pel

  ENCLOSURE panda, tarwa (garden); CIRCULAR ENCLOSURE corin –PAD, QL.87, KOR

  END(noun) metta, mentë, tyel (stem tyeld– as in the pl. tyeldi, misread as “tyelde” in the printed Etymologies; see VT45:25), tyelma, telu; THE ENDING OF THE WORLD Ambar-metta, ambarmetta; END (vb) tele- (intransitive) (finish – so in WJ:411; LT1:267 gives telu),tyel- (cease), PUT AN END TO metya-, HAVE SOME END IN VIEW mína– (desire to go in some direction, wish to go to a place, make for it) –LotR:1003/VT44:36, MET, LT1:267, WJ:411, KYEL/VT45:25, VT39:11

  ENDLESS PERIOD oioUT:317

  ENDURANCE voronwië (lasting quality); ENDURING voronwa (long-lasting), vórëa (continuous, lasting), vórima (continuous, repeated) –BORÓN, VT45:7

  ENEMY cotumoKOT

ENFOLD vaita– (wrap) –VT46:21, LT1:271

ENGLAND see FAËRY.

  ENOUGH farëa (sufficient). “Enough” as an adverb is apparently faren. –PHAR, VT46:9

  ENQUIRY centa (as in Essecenta Eldarinwa, probably meaning *”Enquiry into Eldarin Names”, as Tolkien described the work as an “Enquiry into the origins of Elvish names for Elves”; cf. also Osanwe-centa, translated “enquiry into the communication of thought”. Another possible translation of centa may be *”essay”.) –MR:415, VT39:23

ENTRAILS (bowels) hirdi, sg. hir (hird-) –PE13:161

  ENTRANCE TO HARBOUR  londë (road [in sea], also translated “haven” or “fairway”) –LOD/VT45:28

ENVELOPE (noun) vaiya, vaia (both with alternative, possibly older [MET] forms in w). –WAY

EXACT PENALTY, see PUNISH

  EXPIRE fírë- (perf. fírië [“has breathed forth”] is attested; *ifírië may be the more usual form) –MR:250

  ERRANT ránenRAN

  ESCAPE (vb) usin (glossed “he escapes” in LT:251, but in LotR-style Quenya it would have to mean, if anything, *”I escape” – 1st pers. aorist); ESCAPE (noun) uswë (issue) –LT1:251

 *ESSAY see *ENQUIRY.

  ESTABLISH tulca- (fix, set up). Note: there is a homophone meaning “firm, steadfast, strong, immoveable”. –LT1:270 cf. TULUK

  ETERNAL oiraOY

  EVENING sinyë, also andúnë (sunset, west)MC:222, THIN, MC:222

  EVER oi, voro, vor (continually) (pref. #oio-, vor-, voro-), EVERWHITE, EVER-SNOW-WHITE Oiolossë (a name for Taniquetil; gen Oiolossëo is attested in Nam, where it has an ablatival meaning); EVERSUMMER Oiolairë, EVERLASTING oia; vorima; EVERLASTING [?AGE] (Tolkien’s handwriting was illegible) oirë, oialë;FOR EVER, EVERLASTINGLY oialë (evidently the noun just mentioned used as an adverb), tennoio, oia (the latter is both adj. “everlasting” and the adv. *”everlastingly”, according to VT46:8). –OY, UT:458, BOR, LT1:250/273, Nam/RGEO:67, Silm:429, UT:317

EVERY ilya (each, all of a particular group of things), máca (a very early “Qenya” word of doubtful authority) –VT39:20, GL:41

  EVERYBODY ilquen; EVERYTHING ilqua. For “everything” there is also ilu as a word for the universe: all, the whole; of the universe also including God and all souls and spirits, which are not properly included in the term . –WJ:372, IL/VT45:24, VT39:20

  EVIL (adj.) ulca (see also WICKED), úmëa (but in a later source, the latter is said to mean “abundant, swarming, teaming”), úra (nasty), EVILEYED henulca; EVIL-SMELLING saura (Þ)(foul, putrid) in one attested compound also #sauri-; see FOUL. EVIL as noun: ulco (stem ulcu– as in the ablative ulcullo; pl. “evils” presumably *ulqui; another version of the relevant text uses úro as the noun “evil”; the adj. ulca is also seemingly used as noun in a sentence apparently meaning “if one speaks evil”, VT49:19). FREE FROM EVIL aman (see BLESSED). –VT49:14, VT43:23-24, SD:68, 72, UGU, THUS, VT43:23-24, WJ:399

  EXALTED arta (lofty, noble). Note: homophones mean “athwart” and also “fort”. EXALTED ONESAratar (pl; sg #Arata). The Aratar are the mightiest of the Valar: Manwë, Varda, Ulmo, Yavanna, Aulë, Mandos, Nienna, and Oromë. Aratar is also rendered “High Ones, The Supreme” –PM:354, Silm 32/381, WJ:402

EXCEL lahta– (pass over, cross, surpass) –PE17:92

EXCEPT hequa (leaving aside, not counting, excluding) –WJ:364, 365

  EXCLUDEhehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, leave out, abandon, forsake); EXCLUDING hequa (leaving aside, not counting, except) –WJ:364, 365

EXIST ëa (translated “is” in CO; see BE), pa.t. engë, perfect engië or rarely éyë, future euva. EXISTING nanwa (actual, true) –VT39:6, 7, VT43:38, VT49:29, 30

EXCHANGE quapta –QL:76

  EXPAND palu-, palya- (spread, extend, open wide); EXPANSIVE palla (wide) –PAL

  EXPIRE fírë- (originally used of “one sighing or releasing a deep breath”, but also used of the Elf Míriel when she “breathed forth” and died; later used of the death of mortals. Perf. fírië is attested; *ifírië with prefix sundóma is probably also a possible form.) –MR:250

  EXTEND palu-, palya- (spread, expand, open wide); EXTENDED taina (lengthened, stretched, elongated); EXTENSION tailë (lengthening) –PAL, TAY

EXTENSIVE yonda (wide, roomy) –PE17:43

EXTREMELY langë (surpassingly, superlatively) –PE17:92

  EYE hen (hend-) (normal pl. hendi as well as the dual form #hendu are attested [isolated from hendumaica, WJ:337]; #hendu would be used of a natural pair of eyes). SHARP-EYE hendumaica, EYES OF HEARTSEASE (a name of the pansy) HelinyetillëKHEN-D-E, WJ:337, LT1:262

  EYRIE sornion (Þ)(lit. gen.pl “of eagles”?). –LT1:266. (LT1:251 gives ëaren, but this is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya [seeEAGLE])

 

  <F>

FACE cendelë, anta; SWEET-FACED raina (smiling, gracious). NOTE: A homophone means “nettled, enlaced”. –VT49:21, ANA, VT44:35

FADE sinta- (Þ)(pa.t. sintanë is given, though it seems perfectly regular), fir- (die), fifíru- (“slowly fade away”, frequentative form of fir-; the participal form fifírula is attested); FADING quellë (In the Calendar of Imladris, quellë was a precisely defined period of 54 days in late autumn. Also called lasselanta; see AUTUMN.)  –THIN, MC:222/223, LotR:1141

  FAËRY Inwilis, Inwinórë (another gloss, “England”, was struck out) –LT1:256

  FAINT néca (vague, dim to see) –MC:222/223

  FAIR (1) (adjective) vanima (beautiful, proper, right), vanë, melima, linda (the last word = fair/beautiful of sound, VT45:27); FAIR FOLK Vanimo (pl. Vanimor is given but seems perfectly regular; the word is said to apply to the “children of the Valar”). FAIR-MINDED faila (generous, just), NOT FAIR úvanima (ugly) FAIRWAY (= navigable channel for ships) londë (road in sea). –BAN/VT39:14, LT1:272, MEL, SLIN, PM:352, VT39:14, VT45:28

FAIR (2) (noun): Carl F. Hostetter suggests that the untranslated word parma-restalyanna means *”upon your book-fair”, pointing to #resta as a word for “fair” in this sense. The word is elsewhere defined as “field” (q.v.), and the word may refer to a “fair” held in a field, though Hostetter also suggests a possible connection with “day” (VT49:39-40).

  FAITHFUL voronda, vórima (steadfast) –UT:317, LT1:250

  FALL (vb) lanta- (pres. pl. lantar, pl. past lantaner, future lantuva and part. #lantala are attested); FALL (noun) lanta or #lantë. (The first of these words occurs in the compound lasselanta “leaf-fall, Autumn”, while #lantë is isolated from Noldolantë “the Fall of the Noldor”. From these examples it appears that a lanta is a physical fall, while a lantë is a moral fall. Perhaps the latter word can also be applied to a military defeat, as in “the fall of Gondolin”.) THE FALLEN (= Númenor) Atalantë  –DAT/DANT/MC:222, Nam, SD:246, VT49:47, LT1:254, Silm:102/414, TALÁT

  FALLOW  marya (fawn, pale), malwa (pale) –MAD, SMAL

  FAMILIAR moina (dear) –MOY

  FAMILY nossë (clan, “house”), nórë,nor (land, country, dwelling-place, nation, native land) –NŌ, LT1:272

  FANE yána (holy place, sanctuary) –YAN

  FANG carca (tooth, tusk) –Silm:429, LT2:344 

  FAR haira, eccaira, avahaira; FAR AWAY (adj) vahaia (or (a)vaháya, VT45:21), FAR AWAY, FAR OFF (adv.) háya; FAR AND WIDE palan (or “wide, over a wide space, to a distance”, VT45:21), FAR-SEER palantir, “FAR-WANDERER” (the name of a ship) Palarran  –KHAYA, SD:247, Silm:435, TIR, UT:460

  FAREWELL namáriëNam

  FARMER nandor (perhaps obsolete in LotR-style Quenya, clashing with the name of the Nandor, a tribe of Elves) –LT1:261

  FASTEN #tac– (listed as tacë, 3rd pers. sg. aorist), pa.t. tancë. –TAK

  FAT (adj.) tiuca (thick), lárëa (rich); GROW FAT tiuya- (swell). FAT (noun) lar (also used = riches), larma (the latter possibly “pig-fat”; the first part of the gloss is not certainly legible in Tolkien’s manuscript. Another gloss of larma is “flesh”; in a later source a similar word is used for “raiment”.) –TIW, VT45:26

  FATE umbar (umbart-) (doom; the form amarto in LT2:348 could be obsolete, but ambar from the same source may be a valid word also in LotR-style Quenya – see DOOM), marto (fortune, lot); manar, mandë (doom, final end, fortune[usually = final bliss]); FATED marta (which adjective also seems to be the noun “fate” in later sources; see VT45:33, VT46:13). *LIGHT-FATED calambar –MBARAT/LotR:1157, MANAD, VT45:33/VT46:12, VT49:41, 42

  FATHER atar (pl. atari in Etym, though the pl. form #atári occurs as part of the compound Atanatári). Dative ataren is attested (VT43:36-37). Forms like atar, atarinya (“my father”) as well as atya “daddy” are said to be forms a child would use in addressing his or her father (VT47:26; see DADDY). In VT48:19, atya is explained as a contraction of at-nya “my father”. The final version of the Lord’s Prayer (VT43:12, 13) has #Átar with a long initial vowel (Átaremma “our father”); this #Átar may incorporate the vocative particle a (*a Atar “o Father” > #Átar). FATHER OF ALL Ilúvatar (God). –Silm:428, 229/ATA/LT1:255, VT44:16, Silm:404/UT:446, VT43:37

  FATHOM (noun) rangwëRAK

  FAWN marya (fallow, pale) –MAD

  FAY OF THE COUNTRY nandin (dryad), FAY OF THE MEADS Nermi (pl. Nermir is attested) (field-spirit) –LT1:261, 262

  FËANOR Fëanáro (Spirit of Fire) –Silm:397/435, MR:217

  FEAR (noun) caurë; FEAR (vb) #ruc(the 1st person aorist rucin is glossed “I feel fear or horror”, constructed with “from” of the object feared, e.g. *rucin Orcollon “I fear Orcs”) –LT1:257, WJ:415

  FEAST meren(merend-), merendë(festival); FESTIVE meryaMBER

  FEATHER quessë –KWES, LotR:1157

FEBRUARY Nénimë (Amillion in LT1:249 is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya.) –LotR:1144

FEEL: The noun felmë “emotion” (q.v.) or *”feeling” may suggest a verbal stem #fel– (compare melmë vs. mel-, “love” as noun and verb). This #fel– could then mean “to feel” in the general sense of “have an emotion”. Other senses, see below.

FEEL FEAR OR HORROR #ruc(cited in source as rucin, 1st pers. aorist), constructed with “from” of the object feared. –WJ:415

FEEL WITH FINGERTIPS lepta– ([to] finger; to pick up/out with the fingers) –VT44:16, VT47:10, 25

FEEL WITH THE HAND, see STROKE

FEELING, see EMOTION

  FELL (adj) aica (sharp, terrible, dire). –PM:347

  FELL (noun) helma (skin) –SKEL

  FEMALE (noun) , FEMALE (adj.) inya, inimeitë (pl. probably *inimeisi; cf. HANDED, LEAPING, WINDY) –INI

FENCE IN – see GO ROUND (under entry for GO) regarding the verb pel

  FENCED FIELD peler, FENCING OR DEFENSIVE HEIGHTS Pelóri(the mountain-range at the western coast of the Blessed Realm). PEL(ES), WJ:403

  FESTIVAL asar (Vanyarin athar) (fixed time), meren(merend-), merendë(feast). The word aurë is in one source defined as “a day (of light), a day of special meaning or festival”. FESTIVE merya.WJ:399, VT49:45, MBER

  FETCH tulta– (send for, summon) –TUL

  FEY marta (fated) –MBARAT

FIELD (sown field) resta (acre); compare FAIR #2. FENCED FIELD peler. FIELD-SPIRIT Nermi (pl. Nermir is attested) (fay of the meads) – VT46:11 cf. RED, PEL(ES), LT1:262

  FIERY uruitë, úruva (The stem from which these words are derived was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from this stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it. LT1:248 also gives sára “fiery”, but this word is probably obsoleted by sára “bitter” in Etym.) –UR

FIFTEEN lepenquë –VT48:21 (the form quailepen seems to be another, possibly experimental, word for “15” in Quenya). For the syntax of numerals, see THREE.

FIFTH lempëa, replacing older (MET) lemenya. Fraction ONE FIFTH lepesta, lepsat –VT42:25, VT48:11

  FIGHT (WITH SWORD) mahta- (wield a weapon, manage, deal with, handle); pa.t. mahtanë is attested. –MAK/MA3, VT39:11, VT45:30-32, VT47:6, 18, 19, VT49:10

  FILL quat- (fut #quantuva is attested in enquantuva, “will refill”) –WJ:392, Nam; cf. KWAT

  FINAL tyelima, métima (ultimate, last); FINAL END mande, manar (fortune, bliss, fate), telda (last) –MC:222 cf. 215, MANAD, WJ:411

  FINARFIN ArafinwëMR:230

  FIND #hir- (only fut hiruva is attested), #tuv(only perf #utúvië is attested [with pronominal endings: utúvienyes “I have found it”]). It is difficult to say what distintion in meaning there may be between these words (if any at all); the verb #tuv– is evidently the same as tuvu– in GL:71, there glossed “receive”. –Nam/RGEO:67, LotR:1008

  FINE tereva (acute, piercing); FINE PIERCED HOLE terra –TER, VT46:18

FINE FLOUR mulma –QL:63

  FINE RAIN rossë (dew, spray) –ROS cf. Letters:282

  FINGER (noun) leper (pl. leperi given). In an earlier source, the Etymologies, Tolkien gave the Quenya word for “finger” as lepsë (possibly with stem lepsi-, as indicated by the deleted ancestral form lepti, see VT45:27). The term ortil (ortill-, pl. ortilli given), “up-point”, is also used for “finger”. Special words for the various fingers, see THUMB, INDEX FINGER/FIRST FINGER, MIDDLE FINGER, FOURTH FINGER, LITTLE FINGER. Adj. FINGERED #lepta (isolated from raccalepta “clawfingered”)PICK (UP, OUT) WITH THE FINGERS or FEEL WITH FINGERTIPS lepta –VT44:16/VT45:27/VT47:10 14, 24, LEP, SD:68, 72

FINGER (vb) lepta– (feel with fingertips; to pick up/out with the fingers) –VT44:16, VT47:10, 25

FINGOLFIN Nolofinwë –PM:344 (In the source,, Nolofinwë is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the spelling of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.)

  FINGON Findecáno –PM:345

  FINISH (vb) tele- (intransitive) (end) (so in WJ:411 – LT1:267 gives telu-) telya- (transitive) (wind up, conclude). Cf. also telma “conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair”, “often applied to the last item in a structure, such as a coping-stone, or a topmost pinnacle.” FINISH (noun) teluWJ:411, LT1:267

  FINROD FindarátoSilm:428/PM:346

  FIRE ruinë (“a [concrete] fire, a blaze”), also úr (the stem from which this word is derived was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from this stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it). A more general word for “fire” (as an element, PE17:183)  is nár, nárë, which appear (with the masculine ending –o) in the following names:) SPIRIT OF FIRE Fëanáro (Fëanor), FELL FIREAicanáro (Sharp Flame, Aegnor) (so in Silm:435; MR:323 has Aicanár). LT1:265 has “fire”, poetic form sai, also sairin “fiery”; cf. also Sáya “the fire-fay” in GL:66. LT:271 has the following “fire”-words: FIRE uru, FIERY uruvoitë, ON FIRE urwa, LIKE FIRE urúva. Cf. also FIREWOOD turu (but the word was also used of wood in general). BOWL OF FIREtanyasalpë (evindently #tanya “fire” + #salpë “bowl”)–PE17:183, UR/VT46:20, Silm:397, MR:217, LT1:265, 270, 271, 292

  FIRM tulca (strong, immovable, steadfast; Note: there is a homophone verb meaning “fix, set up, establish”), tulunca (steady), sanda (true, abiding), tanca (fixed, sure) –TULUK, LT1:270, STAN, TAK

  FIRST minya (cf. Minyar “Firsts”, the first clan among the Elves), inga (this is also a noun “top”), *yesta (but this is a noun “beginning” according to a later source, PE17:120), FIRSTBORN (= the Elves) Minnónar, sg. #Minnóna. (*Yesta is emended from the actual reading esta; see BEGINNING. For FIRSTBORN, Etym has Estanessi, which would similarly become *Yestanessi, but this word is propably obsoleted by the later [TLT] form Minnónar. Writers should use the latter word.) FIRST-BEGOTTEN Minyon (a personal name. The element yon, translated “begotten”, may be a reduced form of yondo “son”. Alternatively, and perhaps more likely, Minyon may be the adjective minya “first” turned into a masculine name by adding the masculine ending –on. In that case, the literal meaning is simply *”First One”. But it is possible that on is actually derived from the stem ONO “beget”, and that “First-begotten” really is the literal meaning.) FIRST FINGER lepetas (evidently lepetass-) (index finger), also tassa –MIN/Silm:434/WJ:420, ING, ESE, WJ:403, VT47:10, VT48:5

  FISH lingwë (stem *lingwi-) (perhaps the general word, as opposed to hala),SMALL FISHhala, “FISH-WATCHER” (i.e., kingsfisher, a bird) halatir (halatirn-) or halatirno –LIW, SKAL2, TIR

  FIST quár, quárë (often used to mean “hand”). “Its chief use was in reference to the tightly closed hand as in using an implement or a craft-tool rather than the ‘fist’ as used in punching” (VT47:8). In compoundsquar: Telperinquar = Sindarin Celebrimbor, “Silver-Fist, Hand of Silver”. The first version of the stem KWAR yielded quár pl. quari. –KWAR, Silm:429/387

  FIT (adj.) mára (useful, good); TO (MAKE) FIT camta(sic; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya, but while the source does not explicitly say that this word is Quenya, it is difficult to understand what other language could be intended) (suit, accomodate, adapt) –MAG, VT44:14

  FIVE lempë (alternative form lemen in VT48:6). For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. GROUP OF FIVE (5 similar things) maqua (basically “hand”, with 5 fingers), PAIR OF FIVES maquat (see GROUP OF TEN). For ordinals and fractions, see FIFTH. –LEP/GL:53, VT47:7, 10, 24

  FIX panya- (set), tulca- (establish, set up. Note: there is a homophone adjective meaning “firm, steadfast, strong, immoveable”); FIXED tanca (sure, firm); BE FIXED mar- (abide, be settled). FIXED TIME asar (-th-, Vanyarin athar) (festival), FIXED IDEA see IDEA –PAN, LT1:270 cf. TULUK, TAK, UT:317, WJ:399

  FLAG ambal (shaped stone) –MBAL

  FLAME nár, nárë (also translated “fire”), velca; SHARP-FLAME Aicanáro (so in Silm:435; MR:323 has Aicanár), (Aegnor, Fell Fire), RED FLAME rúnya; HEART OF FLAME Naira (a name of the Sun), FLAME-COLOURED culina, culda (golden-red) –NAR1, LT1:260, Silm:437, MR:198, KUL

  FLAT lára; FLAT OF THE HAND, see PALM.DAL

  FLEECE LT1:249

FLASHING OR [?STARRY] LIGHT élë –VT45:12

  FLESH hrávë, larma (the latter also = “[?pig-]fat”; the first part of the gloss is not certainly legible; note that #larma is used = “raiment” in a later source), sarco; FLESHY sarquaMR:349, VT45:26, LT2:347

FLING hat– (cited as hatin “I fling”, first person sg. aorist), pa.t. hantë (QL:39; compare the root KHAT “hurl”, LR:363). The apparently related noun hatal “spear” occurring in late material (VT49:14) suggests that Tolkien eventually decided to maintain this word, though in the meantime, a distinct verb hat– “break asunder” had occurred in his writings.

  FLINTHEARTED sincahondaLotR:1015 cf. SD:68, 72

?FLINTSTONE #sinca (isolated from sincahonda “flinthearted”) –LotR:1015 cf. SD:68, 72

  FLOAT lutu- (LT1:273 has wili- “sail, float, fly”, but see FLY.)LT1:249

FLOCK lámárë –QL:50

FLOOD (verb) luita-, also oloiya– (inundate). –VT48:23, VT42:10

  FLOOD (noun) luimë (high tide), GREAT FLOOD oloirë. For FLOOD in the sense of “tide” cf. rather celumë (stream, flow, flowing), ulundë, lúto; FLOODING (adj) úlëa (flowing, pouring) –VT48:23, 24, VT42:10, ULU, KEL/MC:223, LT1:249

  FLOOR talan (#talam-, as in pl. talami) (ground); PAVED FLOOR paca (court) –TAL, GL:63

  FLOUR porë (stem *pori-) (meal); FINE FLOUR mulma –POR, QL:63

  FLOURISH (noun) rincë (stem *rinci-) (quick stroke) –RIK, VT46:11 (the latter source indicating that the proper reading is “quick stroke”, not “quick shake” as in the Etymologies as printed in LR)

  FLOW (vb) sir-, lutta-, lutu-;FLOW, FLOWING (noun) celumë (stream, flood); FLOWING (adj) úlëa (flooding, pouring), sírima (liquid). –SIR, LT1:249, KEL/MC:223, LT1:265

FLOWER (large and single) lótë (often –lot in compounds). (The word lótë is usually applied to a large, single flower. From *ambalotsë “uprising-flower” [q.v.] #lotsë can be isolated; this may be the more general word for “flower”.)FLOWER OF THE WEST (a floral design) Númellóte.Cf. also indil, “lily, or other large single flower”.  PUT FORTH LEAVES OR FLOWERS *lohta- (emended from the actual reading lokta because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) (sprout) –LOT(H), LT1:259, WJ:318, UT:227, 458, WJ:399, LT:258

  FLUTE simpa, simpina (pipe); FLUTER timpinen –LT1:266, 268

  FLUTTERING TO AND FRO wilwaMC:223

  FLY (verb) #wil(cited in source as wilin “I fly”, 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. willë (cf. wili- “sail, float, fly” in LT1:273). In exilic Quenya, read v– for w– in these words. FLY TO (i.e. “escape to”) #ruc– (+ allative, e.g. *rucin i orontinnar “I fly to the mountains”; the verb ruc– otherwise means “fear”, constructed with “from” of the object feared); FLY OR STREAM IN THE WIND hlapu(part. hlápula is attested), FLYING rimpa (rushing); SEND FLYING horta-WIL, VT44:7, MC:223, RIP, KHOR

FLY (noun) (small insect) –VT47:35

  FOAM (vb) falasta- (part. falastala is attested); FOAM (noun) fallë, winga (spray), wingë (wingi-)(crest [of wave], spindrift). –MC:222/223, PHAL, WIG, LT1:273

  FOG hísë (Þ)(hísi-) (mist. Note: a homophone means “dusk”), hiswë, hui (murk, dark, night) –KHIS, LT1:253

  FOIL (plant) is translated byasëa (Þ)in the name of the plant asëa aranion “kingsfoil”. According to PE17:148, asëa is the Quenya name of the athelas plant, a term related to words for “ease” or “comfort” (because of the healing properties of the plant). –LotR:899

  FOLIAGE olassië (collection of leaves), farnë (archaic faznë). Note that farnë is also the pa.t. of farya– as well as a word for “dwelling”, so olassië is the less ambiguous term. –Letters:282, VT46:9

  FOLK hosLT2:340

  FOLLOW hilya-FOLLOWER neuro; FOLLOWERS (an Elvish name of Men) Hildor, Hildi (unattested sg #Hildo; dative pl hildin is attested; cf also Hildinyar “my heirs” in Elendil’s Oath).FOLLOWING THAT epeta, epta (thereupon, thence, whereupon) –KHIL/Silm:116/122/403, FS/WJ:387, LotR:1003, 1004, VT49:12

  FOOD matso, in an earlier source also matl (read *matil since Tolkien decided that final syllabicl becameil in Quenya); COOKED FOODapsa–PE16:141, QL:59, AP

  FOOT tál (tal-) (These forms probably obsolete tala pl talwi in LT2:347.) FOOTPRINT runya (slot) –TAL, RUN     

  FOR an (Nam: an sí…Varda…máryat…ortanë, “for now…Varda…has uplifted her hands”. Note: an is also glossed “to, till”.) English “for” meaning “for the benefit of” will often be rendered by the dative endingn (plin); e.g. nin “for me”. As for “for” meaning “on behalf of”, see BEHALF. –Nam, VT49:18

  FORBID #váquet- (refuse, say no) (1st pers. sg aorist and past váquetin, váquenten are given in source), avaquet– (refuse) (pa.t. is no doubt *avaquentë; cf. quet- under SAY) –WJ:370, KWET

FORCE (noun, = pressure to do something against one’s will or conscience) sahtië (Þ) (pressure) –VT43:22

FORCE (in a given direction) (vb.) nir– (thrust, press). (“Though applicable to the pressure of a person on others, by mind and ‘will’ as well as by physical strength, [this verb] could also be used of physical pressures exerted by inanimates.”) Given as a 1st person aorist nirin. Pa.t. probably *nindë since the R of nir– was originally D (the base is given as NID; compare rer– pa.t. rendë from RED concerning the past tense; see SOW). –VT41:17

#FORD tarna (This gloss is isolated from Taruktarna “Oxford”, q.v. Tolkien glossed tarna as “crossing, passage”) –LT1:347

FOREHEAD timbarë –PE14:117

FOREIGN ettelëa (“ettelen” in the printed Etymologies is probably a misreading; see VT45:12); this word may also be a noun “stranger”, q.v. FOREIGN PARTS ettelë (outer lands) (but the Quenya word is singular) –ET, VT45:12

FORESIGHT *apacen (lit. *”after-sight”, a vision of something that will come after the present. In MR:216, apacenyë is translated “foresight”; yet the context and the form of the word itself clearly indicates that it is actually the pl. form of an adjective #apacenya “of foresight”. The noun “foresight” is almost certainly *apacen; cf. tercen “insight”.) –MR:216

  FOREST taurë ([great] wood) (pl. tauri is attested), tauno, málos (the two latter may not be valid words in Tolkien’s later Quenya) –TAWAR/Silm:438/MC:222 cf 215/VT39:7, LT2:342, LT1:267

  FORGE LT1:250 gives tamin, but this verb is probably obsoleted by tamin “I tap” in Etym.

FORGIVE #avatyar– (imperative avatyara and the pl. aorist avatyarir are attested). The matter that is forgiven is the direct object, whereas the person that is forgiven appears in the ablative case: avatyara mello lucassemmar, “forgive us [lit. from us] our debts”. This verb #avatyar– occurs in certain versions of Tolkien’s Quenya rendering of the Lord’s Prayer; in the latest version he introduced the verb apsene– “remit, release, forgive” instead, with a slightly different syntax: the matter forgiven is still the direct object, but the person forgiven now appears in the dative case. The exact etymology of apsene– is somewhat obscure; the prefix ap– is apparently derived from a root AB– in a meaning which Tolkien according to other sources abandoned (see VT43:18-19); also, it is unclear whether the finale of apsene– is just the connecting vowel of the aorist (before endings we would rather expect *apseni-) or an integral part of the verbal stem, which would make this an “E-stem” verb otherwise hardly attested. The verb apsene– is once attested with the object endingt “them” attached: apsenet “[as we] forgive them”. The alternative verb #avatyar– is for many reasons less problematic and may be preferred by writers. –VT43:8, 9, 18-20

FORLORN úna (deprived of, destitute) –VT39:14

  FORM car- (make, q.v.) –WJ:391

  FORMER noa (also used = “yesterday”, shortened from the phrase noa ré “former day”), THE FORMER yara (that);FORMER DAYS yárë; FORMER TIMES yalúmë; FORMERLY (ago), BELONGING TO OR DESCENDING FROM FORMER TIMES yára (ancient, old) –VT49:34, YA

FORSAKE hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon); FORSAKEN ELVES see EGLATH. ONE LOST OR FORSAKEN BY FRIENDS hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (waif, outcast, outlaw) –WJ:365

FORT arta (fortress) (Note: arta also means “across, athwart” as well as “exalted, lofty, noble”), ostirion –GARAT (see 3AR), TI:423

  FORTH et- (prefix) (out). Also attested with various pronominal suffixes, e.g. etel or etelyë *”out of you”. GO FORTH TOWARDS tenta-, pa.t. tentanë (with the thing approached as direct object). –ET, VT49:12, 23

FORTRESS arta (fort) (Note: arta also means “across, athwart”) –GARAT (see 3AR)

  FORTUNE (good fortune) alma(weal, wealth); mandë, manar (final end, doom, fate); heren (governance, what is in store for one or what one has in store); marto (fate, lot); FORTUNATE herenya (wealthy, blessed, rich), GOOD OR FORTUNATE THING mána (see BOON). –GALA, MAN/MANAD, KHER, LT2:348, VT49:41

FORWARD póna, ompa –VT49:12

FOUL saura (Þ)(evil-smelling, putrid); in compounds sauri- as in FOULBELLIED sauricumba. The latter form may indicate that this adjective also appears in an alternative form *saurë, sauri-. –THUS, SD:68, 72

  FOUNDATION talma (base, root) –TAL

  FOUNTAIN ehtelë (issue of water, spring).The actual reading in LT1 and LT2 is ektelë, but Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya. The new form of the word is attested in Silm. LT also gives the form kektelë, that would likewise become *cehtelë.) –LT1:257, LT2:338

  FOUR canta, (prefix:) can-For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. KANÁT, VT45:18, VT48:6

FOURTEEN ?canaquë –VT48:21 (the form listed, “kanakwe”, seems to be Common Eldarin; the Quenya form could be either *canaquë or *canquë). The form quaican seems to be another, possibly experimental, word for “14” in Quenya. For the syntax of numerals, see THREE.

FOURTH cantëa; FOURTH FINGER (the digit between the long finger and the little finger) lepecan, lepentë, in children’s play also called nettë (prob. netti-), “sister”, a word also used for the fourth toe, or in two-hand play for the ninth digit. The word selyë “daughter” was also introduced as a name for the fourth finger/toe in childrens play (VT47:10), but Tolkien apparently abandoned it (VT47:15). Fraction ONE FOURTH canasta, casta, cansat. –VT42:25, VT47:10-12, 15, VT48:5

FOWL (barn fowl) porocë (hen) –PE16:132

  FOX rusco (stem ruscu-, pl. rusqui); FOXY ruscuitë –PM:353, VT41:10

  FREE (adj.) léra, aranya (not to be confused with aranya *”my king”; the shorter form ranya also cited must not be confused with the verb “stray, wander”), mirima (but a very similar word, mírima, is rather assigned the meaning “very valuable” in Tolkien’s later Quenya). The previous words are apparently used to describe “free” persons, whereas the following refer to inanimates: latin, latina(open, cleared [of land]), lerina (“free” of things in the sense of “not guarded, reserved, made fast, or ‘owned'”, VT41:5). Lehta “free, released” (perhaps applicable to persons, but cf. the following:) FREE ELEMENT (a term for “vowel”) #lehta tengwë (only pl. lehta tengwi is attested; we would rather expect *lehtë tengwi). (A word fairë“free” is mentioned in LT1:250, but may be obsolete: several other meanings are attributed to this word in later writings [see DEATH, PHANTOM, RADIANCE]. Fairië “freedom” does not clash with later words, but must probably be considered conceptually obsolete if fairë is so regarded.) FREE FROM EVIL aman (see BLESSED) –VT41:5, VT46:10, MIS, LAT, VT39:17, WJ:399

FREE (verb) rúna– (see DELIVER); SET FREE lerya– (release, let go), sen– (let go, let loose) –VT43:23, VT41:5, 6, VT43:18

  FREEZE niquë- (“it is cold, it freezes”). LT1:254 gives hilcin “it freezes”, but in LotR-style Quenya this will have to mean, if anything, “I freeze” (1st pers. aorist). –WJ:417, LT1:254

  FREQUENT rimbaRIM

  FRESH venya, archaic wenya (yellow-green, green), virya, céva (new). FRESHNESS vén, wén (youth, greenness) –GWEN, VT46:22, VT48:7,8

  FRESHET celussë (water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring) –UT:42 6

  FRIEND meldo (pl meldor is attested). MY FRIEND meldonya (VT49:40). Apparently meldo is a masculine form, corresponding to feminine #meldë (cf. meldenya *”my friend” in the Elaine inscription, Tolkien here referring to Elaine Griffiths). Other words for “friend”: nildo (m.), nildë (f.), sermo, seron (m.), sermë (f.),málo (m.?), ser (final element in compounds), –(n)dil (final element in compounds, e.g. Elendil, Anardil, Valandil – sometimes translated “lover” rather than “friend”. When the first part of the compound ends in l, n, or r, the n of –ndil is left out).The final element –ndil also appears in the variant form –nil and with the longer forms –nildo, –dildo (VT46:4). FRIENDLY nilda(lovely), FRIENDSHIP nilmë –WJ:412 cf. VT45:34, NIL, SER, MEL, Letters:386

FROG quácë –VT47:36

FROM: Independent Quenya prepositons for “from” include ho and va, var. However, English “from” will often be rendered using the ablative case, endings –llo, pl –llon or –llor, dual –lto, e.g. Eärello *”from the Sea”. The preposition et “forth, out” may also express “out” and is combined with a following noun in the ablative case to express “out from”, “out of”. –3O, VT43:20, 24, LotR:1003, VT44:35

FRONT – BEFORE, IN FRONT OF (of spatial relationships) opo, (VT49:12, also pono, poto-, VT49:32)

FROST nixë, ringwë (rime),FROST-PATTERNS niquis, niquessë (the latter by association with quessë “feather”) –WJ:417, LT1:265

  FROZEN halcinLT1:254

  FRUIT yávë (so in Etym, Silm:439, and VT43:31; LT1:273 has yáva, whereas yava appears in VT43:31). BEAR FRUIT yavin (which must mean *”I bear fruit”, stem #yav-. Tolkien often employs the 1st person aorist when mentioning a verb in his wordlists.) –YAB, LT1:273

  FULL quanta (+ genitive to express “full of”, as in quanta Eruanno “full of grace”, VT43:28); FULL TO THE BRIM, WITH MOUTH FULL penquanta (“peñ-). Adverb FULLY aqua (completely, altogether, wholly); FULL WRITING (= writing with separate symbols for vowels) quanta sarmë, FULL STOP (in Tengwar punctuation a dot placed under a consonant to indicate that it is not followed by a vowel, VT46:10, 33) pusta (stop), FULL SIGN #quanta tengwë (only pl. quantë tengwi is attested). In early Elvish analysis of Quenya, this was the term for a consonant + a vowel (this was analyzed as a kind of unitary phoneme rather than two phonemes; hence a stem like mata– “eat” was analyzed as two quantë tengwi: ma + ta). –KWAT/VT43:28, VT39:11, WJ:392, VT39:8, PUS

  FUNGUS hwan (hwand-, as in pl. hwandi)(sponge) –SWAD

FURTHER, FURTHERMORE (adv.) entë (moreover, what is more). The word an may also be used = ”moreover, furthermore, and so – for, to proceed”, but an would often imply “for”, introducing the reason for what has already been said. –VT47:15, VT49:19

    

  <G>

  GALADRIEL Altariel (Altariell-; gen. Altariellois attested. Altariel is the form used in Noldorin Quenya, Galadriel’s own mother-tongue; the Telerin form is Alatáriel [UT:266]. According to PM:347, the true Quenya equivalent of the Telerin form would have been Ñaltariel, but this form was apparently not used.) –Silm:433, RGEO:66

GALADHRIM (the “tree-people” of Lórien) Ornelië –TI:239

  GAME tyalië (sport, play) –TYAL/LT1:260

  GANDALF Olórin (his name in Valinor, derived from a stem meaning “dream” – not an actual translation of “Gandalf”, meaning “Elf of the Wand”, a name he was given by people who did not know that he was actually a Maia.) –LotR:391, UT:396 cf. 391

  GAOL #mando (isolated from Angamando “Iron-Gaol”; mando is also defined as “safe keeping”). –MR:350

  GAP fásë (gulf) –GL:36

GARDEN tarwa (enclosure) –QL:87

  GARLAND ría (wreathe); MAIDEN CROWNED WITH A FESTIVAL GARLAND riellë –PM:347

  GASH cirissë (slash), hyatsë (cleft)KIRIS, SYAD

  GATE ando;GREAT GATE andon (pl andondi). (LT1:264 has osto “the gates of the Sun” and Ostor “East”, but in Tolkien’s later Quenya osto means “town” or “fortress”.) –AD, LotR:1157, LT1:264

GATHER comya– (assemble), hosta- (collect, assemble); GATHERING (of three or more coming from different directions) yomenië (meeting) –PE17:158, MC:223, WJ:407   

  GENEROUS faila (fair-minded, just) –PM:352

  GENTLE milya (soft, weak) (Note: milya– is also a verb “long for”), moica (soft), GENTLE BREEZE vílëVT45:34, GL:58, LT1:273

GET net– (pa.t. nentë given) – QL:66

  GET LOW (of the Sun) númeta-, númenda-LT1:263

  GERM erdë (seed. Note: a homophone means “person”.) –ERÉD

GESTURE-CODE hwermë –WJ:395, VT39:5

  GIANT (noun) norsa (Þ)(see also MONSTER). Another word for “giant” (hanaco) was struck out by Tolkien. –NOROTH, VT45:21

GIFT anna;LAND OF GIFT (a name of Númenor) Andor(haplology of *Annandor), DEAR GIFT (the meaning of Melian’s name) Melyanna, GIFT OF GOD, see GRACE. –ANA, Silm:313, 434

  GIMILZÔR TelemnarUT:223

  GIMLET teret (auger) –LT1:255

GIRD: Early “Qenya” material has a verb qilti– “gird, encircle” (QL:78); read perhaps *quilta– if the verb is to be adapted to Tolkien’s later Quenya (cf. the noun quilta “belt, girdle”).

  GIRDLE #lesta (isolated from #Lestanórë; see DORIATH. #Lesta is the cognate of Sindarin lest as in Lest [or List] Melian “the Girdle of Melian” [WJ:228]. Note: #lesta also means “measure”.) GIRDLE, BELT quilta. –WJ:369, Silm:390, QL:78

  GIRL wen (stem wend-, as in the pl. wendi)(maid). The word seldë was not clearly glossed by Tolkien, but appears to mean “female child”, hence “girl”. The form wendi “young or small woman, girl” in VT48:18 is perhaps intended as the older form of wendë (“maiden”) rather than a “contemporary” Quenya word. The form “wenki” from the same source may have a similar meaning, and again it is possible that this is actually Common Eldarin for Quenya *wencë, wenci-. –LT1:271, VT46:13, VT48:18

  GIVE anta- (pa.t. #antanë is attested in VT49:14 [antanen “I gave”], though the pa.t. “gave” was ánë in early “Qenya”, QL:31; possibly both forms are valid in later Quenya as well). In one text, Tolkien apparently used ana as the imperative “give!”, but the text was rewritten and this may have been an ephemeral form (VT44:13). GIVE INSTRUCTIONS TO, see INSTRUCT. GIVER antë (f), anto (m) (the latter word from Etym is probably obsoleted by anto “mouth” in LotR:1157 – an alternative word for “[male] giver” might be *antando). Another fem. word for “giver” is #ánië, isolated from massánië (see BREAD-GIVER).ANA, VT44:13, PM:404

  GIVE BIRTHnosta- (but in later sources, nosta- is glossed “beget”, q.v.) –LT1:272

  GIVEN (OR ADDED) NAME anessë (pl anessi is attested. This wordencompasses both “after-names” and “mother-names”.) –MR:217

  GLAMHOTH Sancossi (see GOBLIN) –LT2:341

GLASS calca, hyellë, hyelma (the latter perhaps = “a glass”, whereas hyellë could be glass as a substance), maril (crystal perhaps with stem marill-). LITTLE GLASS lipil. Cf. also vírin, “a magic glassy substance of great lucency used in fashioning the Moon” –VT47:35, KHYEL/VT45:23, VT46:13, LT1:258, LT2:339

  GLAURUNG see GLORUND

  GLEAM (WHITE) ilca- (part. ilcala is attested)MC:223

  GLINT (vb) tinë (pres 3rd pers sg);GLINT (noun) tindë, wintil;GLINTING tinda (silver)TIN, LT1:261

GLITTER (vb) mirilya-; GLITTERING rilya (in the Etymologies as printed in LR, this word also seemed to be glossed “brilliance”, but according to VT46:11, this gloss properly refers to another word), GLITTERING LIGHT rilma; GLITTERING REFLECTION (from jewels, glass, polished metals, or water) nalta (radiance alata in Silm:433 is the Telerin form. In PM:347, nalta is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) –MBIRIL, RIL/VT46:11, PM:347

  GLOBE coron (#corn-, as in dat.sg. cornen) (ball); GLOBED corna (round) –KOR

  GLOOM ungwë, lumbë (shadow), huinë (darkness, shadow), lómë (stem lómi-) (night, twilight, darkness, dusk), yaru; GLOOMY morna (black, dark, sombre); CHILD OF GLOOM lómëar (probably not a valid word in LotR-style Quenya) –UÑG, LUM, VT41:8, GL:37, LT1:255, Silm:431

  GLORIOUS alcarinqua (radiant) (The shorter form alcarin is attested in VT44:10 and also as a title of king Atanatar II. Cf. also Alcarinquë, a name of Jupiter.) The form alcarë appears as an adjective “glorious” in VT44:10, but this was apparently an ephemeral form, and the Etymologies, alcarë is rather a longer form of the noun alcar “glory”. –AKLA-R-, WJ:412, RGEO:73/LotR:1075/VT44:10, Silm:55

  GLORUND, GLORUNN Laurundo, Undolaurë (Tolkien later changed Glorund to Glaurung. Read *Laurungo, *Ungolaurë in Quenya?) –LT2:341

  GLORY alcar, alcarë (splendour, brilliance) In VT44:10, alcarë is an adjective “glorious” rather than a noun “glory”, but this was apparently an ephemeral form. –AKLA-R-/RGEO:73/UT:317/WJ:369/Silm:427, VT43:37, VT44:34, VT47:13

GLOWING lúsina adj. “glowing” (of things). Note: used of people, the word means “hearty” (QL:57). If this early Qenya term is to be used in LotR-style Quenya, one would have to assyme that it represents earlier lúÞina (root *LUTH) and spell it accordingly in Tengwar.

  GNOME (only = wise one, Noldo) Noldo (spelt Ngoldo [Ñoldo] in Tengwar writing, reflecting the earlier pronounciation); pl. Noldor is attested. GNOMISH (general adjective:) Noldorinwa, (Gnomish language:) Noldorin,GNOME-LAND NoldomarLT1:262, Silm:61, LotR:1157, VT39:16

  GO lelya- or lenna- (pa.t. lendë in both cases; the printed Etymologies gives “linna” instad of lenna-, but according to VT45:27 this is a misreading) (proceed, travel); #men– (attested in the aorist: menë “goes”), vanya- (pa.t. vannë)(depart, disappear – it may be that Tolkien abandoned the verb vanya-, if it is regarded as the conceptual predecessor of auta-, see GO AWAY below), GO ROUND pel- (revolve, return; the Silmarillion Appendix also mentions “encircle” as a meaning of the root PEL, cf. also “Qenya” pele– “surround, fence in, pen in”; pa.t. pellë given, QL:73). GO OVER, see CROSS. GO ATHWART tara- (cross); GO AWAY auta- (leave, pass); pa.t. oantë, perf. oantië (in the physical sense “went away [to another place]”, vánë (“the most frequently used past [tense]” – less “physical” than oantë, rather meaning to be lost or to disappear), also anwë (this pa.t. was “only found in archaic language”), perf. avánië (pl. avánier is attested); perf. vánië with no augment may occur in verse. GO FORTH TOWARDS (with the thing approached as direct object)  tenta-, pa.t. tentanë (the verb can also mean “direct toward” or “be directed toward”, in the intransitive tense apparently with the pa.t. tenantë). CAUSE TO GO (in a desired direction) menta– (send), GONE vanwa (departed, vanished, dead, lost, past and over, no longer to be had) BE GONE! heca! also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal “you be gone!” (stand aside!) LET GO lerya– (release, set free), sen– (let loose, free) –WJ:363, LED/VT45:27, VT47:11, 30, PEL, LT2:347, WAN, Nam, WJ:364, VT41:5, VT49:23, WJ:366, VT41:5, VT43:18

GOAT – she-goat: nyéniLT1:262

  GOBLET súlo (stem *súlu-), fion (but in later material, a word of similar shape is assigned the meaning “hawk” instead)SUG (see SUK), LT1:253

  GOBLIN (Orc) urco (stem *urcu-, pl urqui) or orco (stem *orcu-, pl. orqui,or stem *orco-, pl. orcor);THE GOBLINS Sancossi (sancë “hateful” + hossi “armies”, said to be the Quenya equivalent of Sindarin Glamhoth)

-ÓROK, LT2:202/MR:74/WJ:390, LT2:341

  GOD Eru (“The One, He that is Alone”, “the One God”, a proper name that can hardly be used as a common noun meaning “god” in general. The form Eru corresponds to Enu in early “Qenya” material, LT2:343. Genitive Eruo, VT43:32; dative Erun, VT44:32). Other names/titles:Ilúvatar “Father of All”, Ainatar *”Holy-Father”. GOD (in general, “a god”) aino (this word from PE15:72 is the equivalent of ainu within Tolkien’s mythos, but since aino could be interpreted as simply a personalized form of aina “holy”, it can perhaps be adapted as a general word for “god” or “holy one”). PAGAN GOD ainu, PAGAN GODDESSaini(angelic spirit, holy one). (As Christopher Tolkien notes, the Ainur are of course not “pagan” to the people of Middle-earth. In Etym and Silm, Ainu/Aini is capitalized.) SON OF GOD (Jesus) Eruion, MOTHER OF GOD (Mary, in Tolkien’s Quenya renderings of Catholic prayers) Eruamillë (also Eruontari, Eruontarië *”God-begetter”) –Silm:15/396/431, Letters:387, VT44:16-17, 34, LT1:248 cf. AYAN and Silm:426, VT43:32, VT44:7, 16-17, 18 34

GODWINE (name, “God-friend”) Valandil (sc. *”Vala-friend”) –VT46:4

  GOLD (the metal) malta (so in LotR – Etym has malda [stem SMAL], but cf. the archaic form smaltamentioned underLAWAR);GOLD laurë(= “not the metal but the colour, what we should call golden light”, Letters:308, “of light and colour, not of the metal”, Silm:433, “not a metallic word. It was applied to those things which we often call ‘golden’ though they do not much resemble metallic gold: golden light, especially sunlight”, RGEO:70, “golden light”, VT49:47, “a word for golden light or colour, never used for the metal”, PM:353, “light of the golden Tree Laurelin“, LR:368; a “mystic name” of gold, LT1:255 [possibly a notion Tolkien later abandoned]; in LT1:258 and LT2:341 the gloss is simply “gold”.) RED GOLD †cullo (obsoleting culu in LT2:341? In LT1:255 culu is said to be a poetic word for “gold”, but also used mythically as a name of all red and yellow metals), GOLDEN laurëa (pl laurië is attested; LT1:258 has laurina), GOLDEN-RED culda, culina (flame-coloured); (cf. Silm. Appendix: “cul- ‘golden-red’ in Culúrien“) –LotR:1157/SMAL, Letters:308/RGEO:70/LAWAR, KUL, RGEO:70/Nam, Silm:429 

  GONDOLIN Ondolindë (“Stone Song”, so in Silm:149, 415; LT1:254 gives Ondolinda, changed from Ondolin) –LT1:254

GONDOR #Ondórë (genitive Ondórëo is attested, VT49:27), also attested in longer form Ondonórë (VT42:17)

  GONE vanwa (departed, lost, past) –WAN, Nam

  GONG tomboLT1:269

  GOOD (of things) mára (fit, useful), GOOD (morally good) manë; GOOD OR FORTUNATE THING, see BOON. GOODBYE mára mestaMAG (see MA3), LT1:260, Arct

  GOODS armar (sg #arma if there is a sg) –3AR

  GOOSE ván, wán (pl. váni is given, but seems perfectly regular) –WA-N-

  GORE nasta (spear-point, spear-head, triangle), nehtë (spearhead, narrow promontory, wedge. Note: a homophone means “honeycomb”), mear (from a root possibly meaning “ooze”) –SNAS/VT46:14, UT:282, LT1:260

  GORGE cilya (pass between hills, cleft) (so in Etym, but cf. #cirya in the name Calacirya “Pass of Light” [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] – though this clashes with cirya “ship”. An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo,not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5) –KIL

GORTHAUR Sauron (Þ)Silm:418 cf. THUS

GOSPEL evandilyon –QL:36

  GOTHMOG Cosomot (prob. *Cosomoc-, cf the alternative form Cosomoco) –LT1:258  

  GOVERN #tur(attested as turin “I…govern”, 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. turnë(wield, control). LT1:273 has vard- “rule, govern”, but this is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya. –TUR

  GOVERNANCE heren (fortune) –KHER

  GOVERNOR cáno (chieftain, commander; see COMMANDER for details) –PM:345, 361-362

GRACE #Eruanna (literally *”God-gift, gift of God”), attested in the genitive form Eruanno. Also #erulissë, literally “God-sweetness” (attested in the instrumental case: erulissenen), or simply lissë, literally “sweetness”.The word mána is also used for a grace or boon; see BOON. Adjective HAVING GRACE, perhaps manaitë (the form is not fully explained by Tolkien). –VT43:28, 29, VT44:18, VT49:41, 42

GRACIOUS raina (smiling, sweet-faced). NOTE: A homophone means “nettled, enlaced”. –VT44:35

  GRADE #tyellë (only pl tyeller is attested – note irregular plural instead of the expected form **tyelli) –LotR:1153

GRAIN orë (ori-) –QL:50

GRAMMAR tengwesta (system or code of signs) –TEK cf. WJ:394

  GRANDCHILD indyo (descendant) (Indyo looks like Vanyarin Quenya; the combination ndy became ny in Noldorin Quenya [see MIDDLE]. The Noldor likely said inyo, which form occurred in a deleted marginal note in the Etymologies). –ÑGYO(N), VT46:19

  GRANT lav- (yield, allow) –DAB

  GRASP mapa- (seize). This word was struck out in one of Tolkien’s earlier word-lists, but in Etym it was restored. In early material occurs map– “seize, take” with pa.t. nampë. –MAP, LT2:339, QL:59  

  GRASS salquë, (stiff and dry:) sara (Þ)(bent) –SALAK, STAR

  GREAT túra (big), hoa (large), (great in size:) alta (large) (The form alat- is used in compounds when the next word has an initial vowel, as in Alatairë. Tolkien’s gloss of alta, alat- was actually illegible, and I give the root meaning of the stem ÁLAT. The meaning of the Quenya word cannot differ too widely from it, for Alatairëis said to correspond to “Noldorin” Belegoer [in LotR-style Sindarin Belegaer], The Great Sea.) – An early [TLT] word for “great”, velicë, ispossibly obsolete in LotR-style Quenya: In LT1:254 velicë is said to correspond to Gnomish beleg, but according to LR:352 the stem from which beleg is derived is “not found in Q[uenya]”. In post-LotR material the words velca, velcë briefly turned up, apparently meaning “large, great, big”, but Tolkien rejected these forms as well.) –PE17:115, ÁLAT, cf. BEL, cf. Silm:428, LT1:254

  GREAT BEAR see SICKLE OF THE VALAR.

  GREAT LONGING mavoinëLT2:345

  GREAT NUMBER – in a very great number: úvëa (abundant) –UB

  GREAT QUANTITY úvë (abundance) –UB

  GREAT WOOD taurë (forest) –TAWAR

  GREED milmë; GREEDY milcaMIL-IK

GREEN laica (so in Letters:282; earlier sources have laiqua, whereas laica meant something wholly different [“keen, piercing”] in earlier material: LT2:337), wenya (yellow-green, fresh), ezel, ezella(adopted from Valarin; only used in Vanyarin Quenya).”Green” is expressed as a mere prefix lai– (representing the root underlying the adjective laica) in: GREEN-ELVES Laiquendi; cf. also VERDIGRIS = lairus.GREENNESS wén, laiquassë (freshness, youth). –LÁYAK/LT1:267, WJ:399, GWEN, WJ:385, LT1:267

  GREY #mista (isolated from lassemista “leaf-grey”), also hiswa, but the most usual word for “grey” may be sindë (stem *sindi-) (Þ)or sinda (Þ).(WJ has sindë“pale or silvery grey”, wheras sinda is given in Silm:438; cf. also sindanoriello “from a grey land”, Sindacollo “Grey-cloak” and Sindar “Grey-Elves, *Grey Ones”.)GREY-ELVES Sindar (Þ)(sg. Sinda), less commonly Sindeldi (sg Sindel); GREY-CLOAK Sindacollo, Singollo (Þ)(so in Silm:421; MR:217 has Sindicollo, presupposing sindë, sindi– as the word for “grey”); GREY-ELVEN sindarinwa (adj), Sindarin (= Grey-Elven language) (Þ)LotR:505 cf. Letters:224, KHIS, LotR:1171, Silm:438, THIN/WJ:384, Nam, Silm:419, WJ:384, LotR:1157, 1161

  GRIEFnyérë (sorrow). Pl. probably *nyérer not *nyéri; cf. the similar formation tyávë “taste” pl. tyáver. The noun nyérë points to a verbal stem *nyer– “grieve”. –GL:60/LT1:261

GROT (small) rotto (cave, tunnel) –PM:365, VT46:12

  GROUND talan (#talam-, as in pl. talami) (floor) –TALAM

GROUP OF FIVE (5 similar things) maqua (basically “hand”, with 5 fingers); GROUP OF TEN (10 similar things) maquat (dual of maqua, here referring to a “pair of fives”) –VT47:7, 10

  GROW ol(not clearly identified as a Quenya word in the source; it may be a primitive root); GROW FAT tiuya-VT45:13, TIW

  GROWL (vb) yarra- (snarl), (of dogs:) núru- (grumble); GROWL (noun) nur (complaint)

-MC:223, LT1:263

  GRUMBLE (vb) nurru- (murmur), núru- (growl [of dogs]). (These may simply be two forms of the same word. Nurru- is by far the later [TLT] form.) GRUMBLING (adj) nurruaMC:223, LT1:263

  GUARD use the word glossed “watch, heed”, q.v. Cf. LT1:258. For “guard” as a noun, #tirno “watcher” may be isolated from halatirno (see FISHWATCHER)

  GUESS (vb) intya-;GUESS (noun) intya (supposition, idea) –INK

GUILT cáma (responsibility) –QL:43

  GULF yáwë (cleft, ravine). According to VT46:22, it is possible that the gloss “gulf” actually reads “gully” in Tolkien’s manuscript, and the other glosses may support this reading. The word londë (land-locked haven) is translated “gulf” in TI:423. Early “Qenya” has fásë = gulf, gap, but Tolkien’s later Quenya would not have s in this position (unless it represents earlier þ). –YAG, TI:423, GL:36

  GULL maiwëMIW

GULLY, see GULF

  GYRATE hwinya- (eddy, swirl) –SWIN

 

 <H>        

  HABIT haimëKHIM

  HABITATION imbar (Imbar was an Elvish name of the Earth as the prinicipal part of Arda; the form Ambar may be more usual and is found in LotR.) –MR:337, WJ:419, 402, LotR:1003

  HAIL (greeting) aiya (so in LotR; LT1:248 has áyë); variant spelling aia. –LotR:747, 950 cf. Letters:385, VT43:28

  HAIR (a single hair) finë (*fini-) (larch).TANGLED HAIR fassë; LOCK OF HAIR findë (defined as “a tress or plait of hair” in PM:345; LT2:341 has findl, an impossible form in LotR-style Quenya), HEAD OF HAIR, A PERSON’S HAIR AS A WHOLE findessë. The conceptual status of the noun loxë “hair” listed in the Etymologies is uncertain; this word is assigned the meaning “bunch, cluster” elsewhere. –PM:362, PHAS, SPIN, PM:345, LOKH

  HALF-ELVEN (noun, pl) Pereldar (Sindarin Peredhil, LotR:1071). Singular #Perelda. –Letters:386

HALF: fraction ONE HALF peresta, perta –VT48:11

  HALL #mardë (isolated from oromardi “lofty halls, high-halls”; the singular may also be reconstructed as #mar with stem mard-, which would make this the same word as the word for “home” or “dwelling”, q.v.); ROCKHEWN HALL hróta(artificial cave, rockhewn hall), VAULTED HALL rondo –Nam/RGEO:66, PM:365, VT39:9

  HALLOW (verb) #airita– (only pa.t. airitánë is attested) –VT32:7

  HALVE perya– (devide in middle) (After perya, a word perina is mentioned – it is undefined but seems to be a corresponding adjective or past participle *”halved, divided in middle”.) –PER  

  HAMMER (vb) namba-; HAMMER (noun) nambaNDAM

HAMS hacca (buttocks) –GL:47

  HAND (pl. allative mannar “into…hands” is attested in FS; the long á evidently becomes short a before a consonant cluster).The plural of is máli, the dual is mát (VT47:6). For maqua as a colloquial term for “hand”, and its secondary meanings, see separate entry HAND-FULL. The term palta is used of “the flat of the hand, the hand held upwards or forwards, flat and tensed (with fingers and thumb closed or spread” (VT47:9). Individual hand-names: forma “right hand”, hyarma “left hand” (VT47:6, VT49:12). Other terms for “hand”: nonda (said to mean “hand, especially in [?clutching]”; Tolkien’s gloss was not certainly legible, VT47:23), quárë (this is properly “fist”, but was often used for “hand” – see FIST); HOLLOW OF HAND cambë (also used simply = “hand”, as in cambeya “his hand”, VT49:17). A variant of this, camba, is in VT47:7 defined as “the whole hand, but as flexed, with fingers more or less closed, cupped, in the attitude of receiving or holding”. HAND-LINK, see WRIST. Adj. HAVING HANDS mavoitë; HANDY, HANDED maitë (stem *maiti-) (skilled) (pl. maisi. When maitë is the final element of names, it is translated “handed” instead of “handy”, e.g. Angamaitë “Iron-handed”, morimaitë “blackhanded”) For other “handed”-related terms, see HEAVYHAND(ED). Compound LANGUAGE OF THE HANDS mátengwië –MA3/LT2:339/VT39:10, FS, VT47:6, 9, 23, KWAR/Silm:429, KAB, LotR:1085 cf. Letters:425, LotR:1015/SD:68, 72, UT:460, VT47:9

HAND-FULL maqua (dual maquat is attested). Colloquially, the word maqua is also used for the “hand” itself (called in formal language); maqua may refer to the “complete hand with all five fingers”, and the word is therefore also used for a group of 5 similar things (just like the dual maquat may refer to a group of 10 similar things; see FIVE, TEN). –VT47:7

  HANDLE (vb) mahta- (deal with, fight, manage, wield, wield a weapon); pa.t. mahtanë is attested. –MAK/MA3, VT39:11, MA3, VT47:6, 18, 19, VT49:10

HANDLE (noun) tolma (defined as “protuberance contrieved to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”, etc.) –VT47:28

  HANG linga- (dangle) –LING

  HAPPEN LT2:348 gives mart- “it happens” (impersonal). Perhaps read *marta- in LotR-style Quenya; compare marta– “[to] chance” in QL:63

  HAPPY valin (LT1:272 also gives valimo, but adjectives ending in –o do not occur in LotR-style Quenya), HAPPINESS vald- (so in LT1:272; nom. sg. must be either *val or *valdë) (blessedness) It is highly questionable whether these words from early material quoted in LT1:272 are conceptually “valid” in LotR-style Quenya: Originally, they were meant to be related to the noun Valar, the Gods being termed the “Happy Ones”, but Tolkien later re-interpreted Valar as meaning the “Powers”. For “happiness” it may be better to use the noun alassë “joy”, and for “happy” or “joyful, joyous” many writers have used the neologism *alassëa.

HARBOUR hópa (haven, bay – obsoleting cópa, cópas in LT1:257); HARBOURAGE hopassëKHOP

  HARD sarda, nauca (the latter also meaning ill-shapen, twisted, *small – see SMALL.); hranga (hard; awkward, stiff, difficult). Note: hranga– is also a verb “thwart”. ––VT39:17, WJ:413, PE17:154, 185

  HARE lapattëGL:52

  HARP (vb) nanda-; HARP (noun) nandë; LITTLE HARP nandellë; HARPING (noun, not adjectival participle) nandelë; HARPER nandaro, HARP-PLAYER tyalangan. (In Etym, all but the last of these words are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) HARP-PLAYING salmë. HARPING ON ONE TUNE vorongandelë (“vorogandele” in the published Etymologies is a misreading; see VT45:7) (continuous repetition) –NGAN, TYAL; cf. LotR:1157, LT1:265, LIN1

HARSH naraca (rending, violent) (possibly “of sounds”, but Tolkien’s extra comment is partially illegible) –NÁRAK, VT45:37

  HARVEST yávië (autumn) evidently obsoleting yávan in LT1:273. In the Calendar of Imladris, yávië was a precisely defined period of 52 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition. Note: here yávië refers to harvest time, and it is unclear whether it can also mean “harvest” in the sense “harvested products”, though it is derived from a stem meaning “fruit”. –LotR:1142, 1145

HAS BEEN, see BE

  HASP tangwa (clasp) –TAK

  HASTE ormë (wrath, violence, rushing); HASTY orna, tyelca (agile)GOR, KHOR, PM:353

HAT táta –GL:71

  HATE (vb) #tev- (aorist tevë), LT1:258 has mokir “I hate”, read *mocin in LotR-style Quenya? Instead of using these early “Qenya” terms, writers may prefer the later verb yelta-, glossed “loathe, abhor” by Tolkien. HATEFUL sancë; HATRED téviëLT1:268 (according to QL:90, tévië rather than tevië is the correct reading), LT2:341

HATTER tátatyaro. Composed from: táta noun “hat” (GL:71) and tyaro noun “doer, actor, agent” (KAR). Literally meaning “hat maker”. – EAC139

HAUBERK ambassë (breastplate) –QL:30

  HAVEsee POSSESS. Cf also NO LONGER TO BE HAD vanwa (gone, dead, departed, lost, past, vanished) HAVE AN IMPULSE horya– (be compelled to do something, set vigorously out to do) –WJ:366, VT45:22

HAVEN  hópa (harbour, bay) londë (as in Alqualondë “Haven of the Swans”, UT:417 – but elsewhere londë is glossed “entrance to harbour, road in sea”) –KHOP

 ?HAWK fion (pl fioni, fiondi) (Tolkien’s gloss was “not certainly legible; the likeliest interpretation would be ‘haste’, but ‘hawk’ is a possibility.” The translation “haste” is out of the question, as this word would have no plural form. Besides, a quite different word for “haste” [ormë] is known.) –PHI

  HE, HIM (personal 3rd sg. pronoun): As a pronominal suffix, the entire 3rd person singular “he, she, it” is expressed by the endings , e.g. caris *“(s)he/it does” (VT49:16, 48). Sometimes a verb with no pronominal ending whatsoever implies a subject “he, she, it”, e.g. nornë “he ran” (PE17:58), fírië “she has breathed forth” (MR:250), tinë “it glints” (TIN). A distinctly masculine endingro does occur in early material (antaváro “he will give”, LR:63), but was apparently abandoned by Tolkien. The endings may also appear in the “rare” longer form (VT49:51, descended from older –sse, VT49:20), perhaps distinctly personal (cf. násë “he [or she] is” vs. nás “it is”, VT49:27, 30).The endings is also attested in object position, e.g. melinyes “I love him” (VT49:21; this could also mean *”I love her” or *”I love it”). “He/she” (or even “it”, when some living thing is concerned) does have a distinct form when it appears as an independent pronoun: se (VT49:37), also with a long vowel (, VT49:51) when stressed. (Contrast the use of sa for “it” with reference to non-living things.) The independent form may also appear in object position: melin sé, “I love him [/her]” (VT49:21). Case endings may be added, e.g. allative sena or senna “at him [/her]”, “to him/her” (VT49:14, 45-46); se also appears suffixed to a preposition in the word ósë *”with him/her” (VT43:29). A distinct pronoun can be used for “he/she” = “the other”, as in a sentence like “I love him () but not him ().” Genitive HIS/HER (or ITS, of a living thing) would normally appear as the endingrya, e.g. coarya “his house” (WJ:369), máryat “her hands” (Nam), the latter with a dual ending followingrya. “His/her” as an independent word could be *senya (compare ninya “my” vs. ni “I”, nin “for me”). – Reflexive pronoun, see HIMSELF. –VT49:16, 51, VT43:29, VT49:15, LotR:1008

  HEAD cár (cas-) (sic in the Etymologies, but read apparently cás with stem car-; see Quenya-English list for a fuller discussion); nóla (round head, knoll); HEAD OF HAIR findessë (see HAIR). SPEAR-HEAD nasta (spear-point, gore, triangle) –KAS, NDOL, PM:345, SNAS/VT46:14

  HEAL #envinyata- (isolated from the past participle envinyanta “healed”. The literal meanings are *“renew” and “renewed”, cf. Aragorn’s title Envinyatar “Renewer” [q.v.]) –MR:405

HEAP cumbë (mound) –KUB     

  HEAR #hlar- (only fut hlaruva is attested) –MC:222

  HEARING (adj) lasta (listening) –LAS2

  HEART hón (physical heart), órë (inner mind concerning this word, see SPIRIT) (Note: a homophone means “rising”), indo (mind, mood), enda (lit. “centre”, not referring to the physical organ, but the fëa [soul] or sáma [mind] itself; enda may be the best word to use for the metaphorical “heart” in general), Tolkien’s early “Qenya” also has the word elwen.HEARTED #honda (isolated from sincahonda “flinthearted”). EYES OF HEARTSEASE (a name of the pansy) Helinyetillë HEART OF FLAME Naira (a name of the Sun), –KHŌ-N-, LotR:1157, ID, VT39:32, LT1:255, LotR:1015 cf. SD:68, 72, LT1:262, MR:198

HEARTY lúsina (of people – used of things, this adjective means “glowing”). If this early Qenya term is to be used in LotR-style Quenya, one would have to assyme that it represents earlier lúÞina (root *LUTH) and spell it accordingly in Tengwar. –QL:57

  HEAT úrë (The stem from which this word must be derived was struck out in Etym, but the word occurs in LotR itself, indicating that Tolkien restored the stem in question.) SMOULDERING HEAT, RED [?HEAT] (Tolkies handwriting was illegible) yulmë (Note:

a homophone means “drinking, carousal”) –LotR:1157 cf. UR; YUL

  HEAVE #amorta- (only part. amortala is attested), HEAVE (of large and heavy things:) rúma- (shift, move) (part. rúmala is attested) –MC:222 cf. 215, MC:223, 222

  HEAVENS, THE menel (a sg word, “heaven”, as opposed to its English translation), ilwë (sky). The form #Erumanthat turns up in one version of the Quenya Lord’s Prayer (in the locative: Erumandë) appears to include the divine name Eru and must refer to “heaven” as God’s abode (but Tolkien simply used menel for “heaven” in earlier versions of the Lord’s Prayer). IN HEAVEN (adj., more or less = *HEAVENLY) meneldëa. HEAVEN AND EARTH Menel Cemenyë –Silm:434/MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:255, VT43:12, 16 vs. 10, VT43:10, VT44:16, VT47:11

  HEAVY lunga; HEAVY-HANDED lungumaitë; HEAVY-HAND (as masc. name) Lungumá, Lungumaqua. –LUG, VT47:19

  HEDGE (jagged hedge of spikes) caraxëKARAK

  HEED cim-, in the sense of “watch” also tir(tirin “I watch”, *”I heed”, 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. tirnë; fut. tiruva “shall heed” is attested.GL:39, MC:222 cf. 214, TIR

  HEIGHT #tárië (only allative tárienna “to the height” is attested) –LotR:989 cf. Letters:308

  HEIR aryon (also haryon is glossed as “heir”, but this gloss is paranthetic and “prince” is given as the primary meaning. Hildinyar is translated “my heirs” in Aragorn’s oath; it appears that this is actually a form of hildo “follower”.) –GAR (see 3AR), LotR:1003, 1004

  HELL Angamando (“Iron-prison”, Morgoth’s dungeon-fortress in the First Age. This is the form given in MR; Etym has Angamanda, LT1:249/252 has Angamandu/Angamandi or Eremandu “Hells of Iron”. In LT1:259, Mandos is glossed “hell”, but Mandos was simply the halls of the dead and not a place of torture. GL:51 also has fatanyu.) –MR:350, MBAD

  HELMET cassa, harna, harpa; the word carma is also used for “helm”, but elsewhere Tolkien indicated that he rather wanted carma to mean “weapon” or “tool”. –KAS, VT45:21, PM:260/PE17:114

HELP, see BLESS

HELPER: A word for “helper” is apparently embedded in the compound “East-helper”, Rómestámo, Róme(n)star (so in PM:384, 391; probably ?Rómenstar must always become Rómestar, but Tolkien cited the form as Róme(n)star to indicate the connection with rómen “east”). It may be that as an independent word, thestámo “helper” element would manifest as *sámo (Þ).

HELPFUL asëa (Þ) (beneficial, kindly) (so according to a late note where the word is derived from *ATHAYA). Also (as noun) used as the name of the healing plant called in Sindarin athelas.

HEM lanë (lani-), ríma (edge, border), HEM OF ROBE lappa –VT42:8,  RĪ, GL:52

HEN porocë (barn fowl) –PE16:132

HENCE (from here) silo, sio –VT49:18

  HER 1. (object form of she) – see HIM (the same forms are used for both genders). 2. HER (genitive, “of her”) –rya (possessive suffix, e.g. aratarya “her sublimity” [WJ:369], máryat “her hands” [Nam].) This ending covers the entire 3rd person sg. and may also translate as “his” and “its”; see HIS for further discussion. –WJ:369, VT49:16

HERB laiquë –PE17:159

HERE sís, sissë; also sinomë “here, in this place”. The form si listed in VT49:33 is defined “here”, but this may be a basic root rather than a Quenya word. Símen is used for “here” in Fíriel’s Song (LR:72), but in VT49:33, simen is translated “hither”. –VT49:18, LotR:1003, 1004

HERSELF (reflexive pronoun) immo (a general sg. reflexive pronoun, covering English “myself, him/herself, yourself”). A specific 3rd person reflexive pronoun “him/herself” is insë (for older imse; it is unclear whether the latter form was in use in later Quenya).See HIMSELF. –VT47:37

  HERO callo (noble man). LT1:268 also has mordo “warrior, hero”, but in Tolkien’s later Quenya, mordo means “obscurity, shadow, stain, smear, dimness”. –KAL

  HEW *pelehta(emended from the actual reading pelekta-, since Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya). The verb nac– is defined as “hew, cut” in late material, though in Etym, it was assigned the meaning “bite” instead. –LT2:346, VT49:24

HIDE #nurta– (verbal stem isolated from the verbal noun nurtalë “hiding” in Silm:120), #lom- (LT1:255 gives lomir “I hide”; this would become *lomin in LotR-style Quenya); moru-LT1:261

  HIDING nurtalë –Silm:120

  HIDDEN muina (secret), halda (veiled, shadowed, shady), foina, furin/hurin (concealed); DARK OR HIDDEN tumna (low-lying, low, profound, deep) –MUY, SKAL, LT2:340, LT1:271

  HIDEOUS CREATURE ulundo (deformed creature, monster) –ÚLUG

  HIGH tára (lofty, tall), oro- (in compounds: oromardi “high-halls”). The element #Ar- in Arfanyarassë (a name of Taniquetil) is said to mean “high (i.e., noble, revered)”. VERY HIGH antara (with Antaro as a corresponding proper name, denoting a mountain in Valinor, VT46:17) (lofty). HIGH HEAVEN tarmenel (locative tarmeneldë also attested), HIGH PLACE #tarmen (pl. locative tarmenissen attested), HIGH

TIDE luimë (flood). –WJ:417, Nam/RGEO:66, WJ:416, VT45:5/VT46:17, VT44:34, VT48:23, 24

  HIGH ELVES Tarquendi;HIGH-ELVES TareldarTA, MC:349

  HIGH ONES Aratar (sg #Arata, cf. PM:363). The Aratar are the mightiest of the Valar: Manwë, Varda, Ulmo, Yavanna, Aulë, Mandos, Nienna, and Oromë. Aratar is also rendered “The Supreme, Exalted Ones”. –Silm 32/381, WJ:402 

  HIGH SPEECH (= Quenya) Tarquesta –TĀ  

  HILL ambo (allative pl. ambonnar is attested); tundo (stem *tundu-) (mound), oro; ISOLATED ROUND HILL tolmen (boss of shield) HILL-SIDE amban (upward slope) (probably obsoleting amun(d) in LT2:335) –VT45:5, MC:222, LT1:269, TUN, LT1:256, AM

  HIM (and HER) as object may be expressed by se, or (where it follows another pronominal ending)s, e.g. melin sé or melinyes for “I love him” (/her). These forms are not specifically masculine, but are used of any living person or thing. See HE.

HIMSELF (reflexive pronoun) immo (a general sg. reflexive pronoun, covering English “myself, him/herself, yourself”). A specific 3rd person reflexive pronoun “him/herself” is insë (for older imse; it is unclear whether the latter form was in use in later Quenya). A reflexive ending “he…himself” (and *”she…herself”) in –ssë existed at one conceptual stage (melissë, “he loves himself”), but it is uncertain how lasting this idea was, and the ending seems prone to confusion with other, similar endings. Another reflective ending is – (spelt “-kse” in the source), plural –xer, dual –xet–VT47:37, VT49:21, 48

  HINDMOST tella (last); THE HINDMOST Teleri (the Last-comers) –TELES, Silm:421

HINT (verb) hiuta –VT46:6 s.v. ÑIW

HIP oswë –QL:71

  HISrya (possessive suffix, e.g. coarya his house. This ending covers the entire 3rd pers sg and also means “her” and *”its”.) Nouns ending in a consonant take the shorter form –ya, e.g. talya “his foot”, macilya “his sword” (cf. tál, tal– “foot”, macil “sword”). In colloquial Quenya (which used –rya = “their” rather than “his, her, its”), the ending –ya could be added even to nouns ending in a vowel: cambeya (“k”) “his hand”, yulmaya “his cup”. –WJ:369, PE17:130, VT49:17, 48

  HISTORY nyárë (tale, saga), quenta (narrative, story), quentalë (account, narration), lúmequentalë, lúmequenta (chronological account), HISTORICAL lúmequentalëa. (In VT39:16, quentalë is defined as “narration” or “History”, used as an abstract referring to universal History, but also used with particular reference; hence “the history of the Noldor” can be quentalë Noldoron or quentalë Noldorinwa, but this refers to the real events rather than an account of them: that part of universal History which concerned the Noldor.) HISTORICAL ACCOUNT quentasta (any particular arrangement, by some author, of a series of reconds or evidences into a given historical account – not History as such, which is quentalë). THE HISTORY OF THE ELVES I·Eldanyárë –NAR2, KWET/VT39:16, LU, LR:199

HITHER sir, sira, simen (but in LR:72, símen is used for “here”) –VT49:18, 33

HIVE nierwesLT1:262

  HOARD foa (treasure) –LT2:340

HOBBIT: The genitive plural periandion is attested in the Elaine inscription, suggesting that the Quenya word for “hobbit” is #perian (as in Sindarin) with stem #periand-.

  HOLE ecca, latta (pit Note: a homophone means “strap”), assa (perforation, opening, mouth), terra (fine pierced hole), unquë (hollow). –PE17:188, DAT, GAS, VT46:18, VT46:20

HOLIDAY meryalëMBER

HOLLOW (noun) unquë (hole), HOLLOW (adj) unqua, ronta, rotwa; HOLLOW OUT unca-  –UNUK, LotR:1157, LT2:347

  HOLLOWBOLD Návarot (Nogrod, Novrod) –WJ:389

  HOLLY ercassë (probably obsoleting piosenna in LT2:347) –ERÉK

  HOLY airë. The word aina also occurs in a number of sources (e.g. VT44:7, 17-18); according to VT43:32 this word is “obsolete except in Ainur”, but it may occur in sources post-dating this statement. Yet another word for “holy”, aista, is seemingly only attested in a translation of “holy spirit” which Tolkien later replaced with a form including airë instead (see below). HOLY ONE ainu (m.), aini (f.) (angelic spirit, god); HOLY PLACE yána (fane, sanctuary); HOLY SPIRIT airefëa (other version: fairë aista; both versions are attested with the dative endingn attached) –Nam, AYAN/WJ:399,, YAN, VT43:36, 37

HOME már (also used of the “home” or native land of peoples). The stem mar– occurs in the phrase hon-maren, q.v. in the Quenya-English wordlist.VT45:33 and VT46:13 give mar “home, dwelling” with stem mard-, but in Fíriel’s Song, this is used = “earth” instead (i-mar “the earth”, ablative mardello). Short form mar as the final element of compounds: Eldamar “Elvenhome”; the vowel is also short in Mar-nu-falmar, “the Land [lit. Home] under the Waves”. – The word ambar, usually translated “world”, is also associated with “home, dwelling” in one source. –Silm:408, 428, VT46:13

  HOMESTEAD ostaLT2:336

  HONEY lis (liss-). In a far earlier source, reproduced in LT1:262, the word for “honey” was nektë. This would however become nehtë in LotR-style Quenya, since Tolkien later decided that kt becomes ht in Quenya, and in its new form nehtë the word turns up in the Etymologies with the slightly modified meaning “honeycomb”. (Note: a homophone means “spear-head, gore, wedge, narrow promontory”.) HONEY-BEE nier, nionLIS, LT1:262, VT45:38, GL:60

  HOOD telmë (covering) –TEL

  HOOK ampa, atsa (claw, catch); HOOKED rempa (crooked) –LotR:1157/VT47:20, GAT, REP

  HOPE (noun) estelWJ:318 (where it is stated that this word was used in Quenya as well as in Sindarin. Here the word is defined as “‘hope’, sc. a temper of mind, steady, fixed in purpose, and difficult to dissuade and unlikely to fall into despair or abandon its purpose”. In MR:320, estel is translated “trust”.) 

  HORDE horma (host) –LT2:341

  HORN rassë, rasco (“especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains”. Cf. Rasmund “horned bull” in Letters:423 [this seems like Sindarin rather than Quenya] and Arfanyaras, Arfanyarassë “high white-shining peak [*horn]”, alternative name of Taniquetil), romba (so in Etym and one place in WJ [p. 400: romba = “horn, trumpet”] but on p. 368 rómais used for “horn”, though this is glossed “trumpet-sound” in Etym), HORN OF ULMO hyalma (shell, conch), tildë (point), (horn of animal:) tarca (probably obsoleting taru in LT2); HORNED tarucca (perhaps obsoleted together with taru), THE HORNED Tilion (a name of the Moon) –RAS/VT46:10, WJ:403/416, ROM/WJ:401 contrast 368, SYAL, TIL, TARÁK, LT2:337,347, Silm:438

HORRIBLE norta –VT46:4

  HORROR norto (glossed “a horror”).The verb rucin is glossed “I feel fear or horror” (1st pers. aorist), constructed with “from” of the object feared (e.g. *rucin Orcollon “I fear Orcs”) –VT46:4, WJ:415

  HORSE rocco (defined as “swift horse for riding” in Letters:382, “swift horse” in VT46:12), olombo (but since Tolkien subsequently changed the relevant stem from LOB to LOP, we should perhaps read *olompo, compare lopo in an earlier source), mairo; HORSEMAN roquen (rider, knight)ROK/Letters:282, 382, VT45:28, PE16:132, GL:56, WJ:372/UT:282

  HOST rimbë (crowd), horma (horde), liyúmë –RIM/Letters:178, 382, LT2:341, VT48:32

  HOSTILE cotyaKOT

  HOT saiwa; BLAZING HOT úrin (Úrin is also a name of the Sun)LT1:248/265, LT1:271

  HOUND huan (hún-); HOUND OF CHASE ronyoKHUG (see KHUGAN), ROY

  HOUR lúmë (so translated in LotR and in VT43:34; in Etym the gloss is simply “time”. Allative lúmenna is attested. Note: lúmë also means “darkness”.) THIS HOUR #sillumë (isolated from the ablative sillumello “from this hour”) –LU, LotR:94, WJ:367, VT44:35

  HOUSE coa (prob. the most neutral word), opelë (walled house), car (card-) (building), nossë (clan, family, kin, people) (LT2:336 gives indo “house” and os(t) “house and cottage”; these words are probably obsolete – in Tolkien’s later Quenya indo means “heart”, while osto means “city”. The term indor “master of house” can hardly be valid either.) LIGHT OF THE HOUSE coacalina (a metaphor for the soul [fëa] dwelling inside the body [hroa]) –WJ:369/MR:250/VT47:35, PEL(ES), KAR, NŌ/LT1:250, 343, MR:250  

HOW manen –PM:395

HUE quilë (colour) –QL:77

HUGE haura –PE17:115

HUMAN firya (lit. *”mortal”; nominal pl. Firyar is attested) –PHIR, WJ:219

  HUMBLED nucumnaSD:246

  HUMP tumpo (stem *tumpu-), HUMPBACK cauco, HUMPED cauca (bent, crooked)TUMPU, LT1:257

HUNGRY maita –VT39:11

  HUNT (noun), HUNTING roimë (the misreading “raime” occurs in the Etymologies as printed in LR; see VT46:12 for this correction).No verb “to hunt” is given in Etym, but roita- “pursue” is derived from the same stem and can probably be translated *”hunt” as well. LT1:260 has rauta- “hunt”. –ROY1

HURL, see FLING

  HURT (vb) mala– (pain) –QL:63

  HUSBAND venno (the published Etymologies gives “verno”, but according to VT45:7, this is a misreading of Tolkien’s original manuscript); HUSBAND AND WIFE veru (married pair – but in a late source, veru is also used for “husband” alone, the counterpart of veri “wife”) –BES, VT49:45

  HUSH quildë (rest, quiet) –GL:23

HYACINTH (plant) linquë (Note: Homophones mean “wet” and also *“grass, reed”). –PE17:62

           

  <I>

  I (1st pers. sg): This pronoun normally appears as the endingn ornyë (VT49:51) added to verbs, e.g. carin and carinyë “I do”, maruvan “I will abide”. The long form –nye must be used if another pronominal ending is to be added after it: utúvienyes, “I [-nye-] have found it [-s]”.Independent pronouns: ni (in the “Arctic” sentence, ni is translated “I”), stressed with long vowel (VT49:51), as in ní nauva tanomë “I will be there” (VT49:19; ní nauva puts more emphasis on “I” than nauvan, with the pronoun expressed as an ending). The dative pronoun nin “for me” is transparently ni + the dative endingn; other case endings may also be added to ni. It may be that ni, can also function as object (“me”), though a distinct form nye has also been proposed. The longer pronoun inyë may also be used where “I” is emphatic, and presumably can also take case endings. –VT49:48, 50, LotR:1008/1003, Arct, LR:61

  ICE helcë;ICE-COLD helca (the final –a is missing in the printed Etymologies, entry KHEL, but VT45:21 confirms that this is a typo; the full form also occurs in LT1:254 and Silm) –LT1:254/Silm:433/KHEL

  IDEA intya (guess, supposition), inca (cited with a final hyphen in the source, but it does not seem to be a verbal stem); *selma (Þ) (“a fixed idea, will”. In WJ:319, the word is given as Þelma, but Þ (th)would become s in the Noldorin Quenya. Cf. Þindë, sindë in WJ:384; see GREY) –INK, VT45:18, WJ:319

IDENTICAL imya (same, selfsame) –VT47:37

  IDOL cordonLT1:257

IDRIL Itaril, Itarillë, Itarildë (obsoleting Irildë in LT2) –PM:346/Silm:436, LT2:343

  IF qui (in some texts or ce, but the latter form Tolkien defined as “may be” elsewhere); IF ANYBODY aiquen (whoever). IF IT BE SO cenasit, cenasit (may be, perhaps), IF IT BE THAT cenai (but this word probably presupposes , ce rather than qui, as the word for “if”).  –VT49:19, PE14:59, WJ:372

  ILL laiwa (sick, sickly). Since this is derived from a root in sl-, the spelling *hlaiwa may fit Tolkien’s later system better: he derived Quenya forms in hl– from roots with this initial combination. (For noun “illness”, see SICKNESS under SICK.) BE ILL quama– (vomit) –SLIW, QL:76

  ILL-SHAPEN nauca (hard, twisted, *small – see SMALL.) –WJ:413

  ILLUMINATE calya-KAL

  IMAGINATION síma (mind), alternative form (?) isima; also nausë (Þ)VT49:16, NOWO

IMMINENT – BE IMMINENT: úva– (impend), nearly always in a bad sense: threaten to come. Hrívë úva vena “winter is drawing near to us”. –VT49:14

  IMMORTAL ilfirinPHIR      

  IMMOVEABLE tulca (firm, strong, steadfast; Note: there is a homophone meaning “fix, set up, establish”) –TULUK cf. LT1:270

  IMPLEMENT (prob. noun) yaimaGL:37

IMPEDED tapta; nominal pl. taptar was used = tapta tengwi “impeded elements”, a term for consonants (sg. #tapta tengwë; in the pl. we would rather expect *taptë tengwi with the pl. form of the adjective). –VT39:17

IMPEND úva– (be imminent), nearly always in a bad sense: threaten to come. Hrívë úva véna “winter is drawing near to us”. –VT49:14

IMPORTANT valdëa (of moment) –QL:102

  IMPOSSIBLE TO RECOUNT únyárima (“sc. because all the facts are not known, or the tale is too long”),IMPOSSIBLE TO SAY/PUT INTO WORDS úquétima (unpronounceable, unspeakable), A THING IMPOSSIBLE TO BE OR TO BE DONE únat –WJ:370, VT39:26

IMPULSE felmë (emotion), hórë; BODY-IMPULSE hroafelmë (impulses provided by the body, e.g. physical fear, hunger, thirst, sexual desire), SPIRIT-IMPULSE fëafelmë (impulses originating with the spirit, e.g. love, pity, anger, hate); IMPULSIVE hórëa (the gloss “impulsion” in the printed Etymologies is a misreading, VT45:22); HAVE AN IMPULSE horya– (be compelled to do something, set vigorously out to do) –KHOR, VT41:19 cf. 13, VT45:22

  IN mi (within), imi; IN THE (for *mi i?) (The version of Nam in LotR has mi where the version in RGEO has the more correct form .) IN or AT: , se (the form with a long vowel may be preferred since se is apparently also a 3rd person pronoun) This preposition is apparently related to the locative endingssë (pluralssen, dualtsë) that would be the most typical way of expressing “in, on, at” in Quenya. IN, INWARDS, see separate entry INWARDS. –MI, VT43:30/VT44:18, 34, Nam, RGEO:66, VT43:30, 34

IN- (prefix denying presence or possession of thing or quality) ú– (not-, un-) –VT39:14; according to LR:396 s.v. UGU, this prefix usually has a “bad sense”, cf. vanimor “fair folk” vs. úvanimor “monsters”.

INADEQUATE penya (pl. penyë is attested) (lacking). INADEQUATE SIGN #penya tengwe (only pl. penyë tengwi is attested). This term, also translated “lacking signs”, was used in early Elvish analysis of Quenya as the term for vowels with no preceding consonant, held (in many cases incorrectly) to have lost such a consonant. –VT39:6, 8

  IN A VERY GREAT NUMBER úvëa (abundant) –UB

IN FRONT OF (of spatial relationships) opo, (before) –VT49:12

  INCARNATE (noun) #mirroanwë (only pl. mirroanwi“incarnates” is attested) –MR:350

  INCITEMENT siulëSIW

  INCLINE (noun) taltaTALÁT

  INCLINED penda (sloping down) –PEN

INDEED (interjection) é. Can be prefixed to sentences, as in e man antaváro? “What will he give indeed?” (LR:63); this e would seem to be a short variant of é. –VT45:11, LR:63

INDEX FINGER (first finger) lepetas (evidently lepetass-), also tassa. This finger is also called emmë, emya (terms used in children’s play, basically “mother, mummy”; also used = “index toe”). –VT47:10, 26, VT48:5

INDEX TOE, see INDEX FINGER

  INDICATE tana- (show) (Note: tana also means “that”), tëa(note: not to be confused with the noun tëa “straight line, road”), pa.t. tengë (VT43:38).INDICATION tengwë (sign, token, writing pl tengwi is attested) INDICATED (adj) tengë. –MR:385, VT39:6, WJ:394, 395 cf. TEK, VT39:6

INDIVIDUAL nassë (person) –VT49:30

INDUCE sahta– (Þ)(referring primarily to inducing someone to do something against their will or conscience). –VT43:22

INDUCEMENT TO DO WRONG #úsahtië (temptation). Attested in the allative case (úsahtienna). –VT43:23

INFLICT PENALTY, see PUNISH

INJURE hyan–PE16:145

INK móro –PE16:133

  INLANDS Mittalmar (the central region of Númenor) –UT:165, 454

  INNER MIND órë (heart) (Note: a homophone means “rising”) –LotR:1157

INSECT (small insect) (fly) –VT47:35

INSERT mitta –VT43:30

  INSIDE, TO THE mir, minna (into) –MI

INSIGHT tercen; OF INSIGHT, lit *INSIGHTFUL #tercenya (only pl tercenyë is attested) –MR:230

*INSTRUCT (Tolkien’s gloss: “give instructions to”) pëanta–QL:72

INTELLECT handelë; INTELLIGENCE handassë; INTELLIGENT handa (understanding) –KHAN

INTERCHANGE OF THOUGHT (= telepathy) ósanwë (communication of thought). –VT39:26

INTERIOR (adj) mityaMI

INTO mir, minna (to the inside), variant mina. –MI, VT43:30

INUNDATE oloiya– (flood) –VT42:10

  INVENT auta– (devise, originate) (Note: a homophone means “pass”); INVENTION aulë

-GAWA

  INWARDS – a word imbë said to be the adverb “in(wards)” appears in VT45:18 (not clearly identified as a Quenya word), but in LotR, imbë (imbi) is the preposition “between”.

  INZILADÛN Palantir –UT:223, Silm:324

  IRELAND Íverind- (As indicated by the hyphen, some ending is needed – a Quenya word cannot end in nd. The normal form must be *Íverin, becoming Íverind(e)- before an ending, e.g. genitive *Íverindo, locative *Íverindessë [cf. Lórien, locative Lóriendessë]. The name is also given as Íwerin or Iverindor, “an island off the west coast of Tol Eressëa” – Eressëa later becoming England in this early version of Tolkien’s mythology.) –LT2:344, cf 285

  IRON anga, IRON or STEEL erë, eren; OF IRON angaina; IRON-HANDED Angamaitë; IRON-GAOL Angamando (Angband)ANGĀ/LotR:1157, LT1:252, LT1:249, 268, Letters:425 cf. LotR:1085, MR:350

  ÍRITH Irissë –PM:345

  IS see BE

  ISLAND, ISLE lóna, tol (stem toll– as in the pl tolli; the plural was misread as “tolle” in the Etymologies as printed in LR, see VT46:19). According to Silm:438, tol is used of islands “rising with sheer sides from the sea or from a river”. LT1:269 defines a tol as “any rise standing alone in water, plain of green, etc.”) STEEP ISLE tollë (apparently simply the fuller form of tol). THE LONELY ISLE Tol Eressëa (tol “isle” often being omitted) –LONO, TOL/VT46:19/VT47:13, 26, RGEO:70

  ISOLATED ROUND HILL tolmen (boss of shield) –LT1:269

  ISOLATED TOWER mindoMINI

  ISOLATED TREE ornëÓR-NI- (see ORO)

  ISSUE uswë (escape) –LT1:251

  ISSUE OF WATER ehtelë (fountain, spring) –KEL

  ISTHMUS yanwë (bridge, joining) –YAT

  IT (impersonal 3rd sg. pronoun – notice that “personal” forms are used of all living things including plants; see HE): As a pronominal suffix, the entire 3rd person singular “he, she it” is expressed by the endings , e.g. caris *“(s)he/it does” (VT49:16). The endings is also attested in object position, e.g. utúvienyes, “I have found [utúvienye-] it [-s]”). “It”, with reference to non-living or abstract things, does have a distinct form when appearing as an independent pronoun: sa (VT49:37), with long vowel (, VT49:51) when stressed. It is attested in object position: carë sa, “to do it” (VT49:34). Another word for “it” or “that” is ta (though in some sources, Tolkien used ta for plural impersonal “they, them” instead). Case endings may probably be added to sa, e.g. dative *san “for it” (cf. nin “for me”); sa also appears suffixed to a preposition in the word ósa *”with it” (VT43:29). Genitive ITS would normally appear as the endingrya (only attested with personal meanings “his, her” – see HIS). “Its” as an independent word may be *sanya, formed from *san as the dative form of sa “it” (compare ninya “my” vs. ni “I”, dative nin “for me”). –VT49:16, 51, VT43:29, LotR:1008, TA

ITSELF (reflexive pronoun used on non-living things) imma (also used as noun “same thing”); also in the form insa.VT47:37

 

  <J>

   JACKET vacco (cloak) –GL:21

JAIL see GAOL    

JANUARY Narvinyë (In LT1:252, the word for January is avestalis, and the latter part of the month is called Erintion, but these words are hardly conceptually valid in LotR-style Quenya.) –LotR:1144

JAW anca (translated “jaws” in the appendices to LotR and Silm, but anca is sg and is glossed “jaw” in Etym. GL:37 has [spelt “kâ”])LotR:1157, Silm:427, ÁNAK

  JERK (vb) rihta- (give quick twist or move), (noun:) rinca (twitch, trick, sudden move) –RIK(H), VT46:11 cf. RIK(H)

JESUS Yésus –VT43:31

  JEWEL mírë (pl. míri is attested); SHINING JEWEL miril (treasure, precious thing). *NOLDO-JEWEL (= Silmaril) Noldomírë, Noldomír; WITH ADORNMENT OF RED JEWELS carnimírië (a pl form? Sg *carnimírëa? Letters:224 has carne- instead of carni-.) JEWEL OF YAVANNA yavannamírë (a fragrant evergreen tree with scarlet fruit, brought to Númenor by the Eldar) –MIR/Silm:434, Nam, ÑGOL/VT46:3, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224, UT:472

JOIN: The intransitive verb verya– + allative is suggested to mean “be joined to”; this is also the idiom for “get married to” (see MARRY).JOINING (noun) yanwë (isthmus, bridge) –YAT, also VT45:45 (where the stem is given as YAN rather than YAT), VT45:46

JOURNEY (noun) lenda –PE17:60

  JOY alassë (merriment) –GALÁS

  JUDGE (vb) #nam(1st person aorist namin “I judge” in VT41:13). An alternative form #nav– occurs in navilwë “we judge” –VT42:34, VT48:11

JUDGE (noun) Námo (Ordainer the name of a Vala. In MR:150, though, Námo is glossed JUDGEMENT [of what is]). Note: a homophone námo means “person”. –Silm:411

JUDGEMENT námië – defined as “a (single) judgement” or “a (single) desire”. A JUDGEMENT náma (desire). JUDGEMENT (of what is) Námo (but this is elsewhere glossed “Ordainer”, and the endingo normally does indicate something animate/masculine rather than something abstract). –VT41:13, MR:150

  JUICE sáva, pirya (syrup) –SAB, PIS

  JULY CermiëLotR:1144

  JUNE NáriëLotR:1144

JUMP cap– (pa.t. campë) (leap) –QL:45 cf. PE16:134

  JUPITER Alcarinquë (Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55. According to LT1:260, Morwen (there translated “daughter of the dark”) is a name of Jupiter, but this may not be a valid word in Tolkien’s later Quenya. LT1:265 also mentions Silindo as a name of this planet.

JUST faila (fair-minded, generous) –PM:352

 

  <K>

KEEN laica (the printed Etymologies has a final –e instead of –a, but this is a misreading; see VT45:25) (sharp, acute, *piercing); KEENNESS (of perception) laicë (acuteness). The conceptual validity of these words is questionable; see PIERCING. –LAIK

  KEEPING (safe keeping) mando (custody) –MR:350

  KHAZAD-DÛM Casarrondo (Dwarrowvault) –WJ:389

KILL, see SLAY

  KIN nossë (house, people). DEAR KINSMAN, see DEAR. –LT1:250, 272/LT2:338

KIND nostalë (species) –LT1:272

KINDLE tinta- (cause to sparkle), narta-; in older [TLT] materiel also turu-, tunda- (Note: there is a homophone meaning “tall”) –Silm:438, VT45:37, LT1:270

KINDLY asëa (Þ) (beneficial, helpful) (so according to a late note where the word is derived from *ATHAYA). Also (as noun) used as the name of the healing plant called in Sindarin athelas.

  KING aran (pl arani is attested) In Etym, the Quenya word for “king, chieftain” is haran pl. harni, but evidence from LotR, WJ and UT shows that Tolkien changed it to aran pl arani. Cf. asëa aranion “kingsfoil”, i arani Eldaron “the Kings of the Eldar”, Arandor “kingsland”, aranya *“my king”, arandil “king’s friend, royalist”, and arandur“king’s servant, minister”.) LT1:273 has vardar “king”, but this is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya. KINGLY BULL Aramund (this may not be pure Quenya, because of the final consonant cluster) –3AR, LotR:899, WJ:369, UT:165, 193, 313, Letters:386, 423

KINGDOM #aranië (attested with the suffixlya “thy” added). Earlier versions of the text in question had other forms: #turinasta, #turindië (both also occurring with a long ú). –VT43:12, 15

  KINGSFISHER halatirno, halatir (halatirn-) (lit. “fishwatcher”) –SKAL2, TIR

KINGSFOIL (athelas, a healing plant) asëa aranion –LotR:899

KISS (vb.) miqu– “to kiss”, pa.t. minquë (not to be confused with the cardinal minquë “eleven”). (QL:61). Noun A KISS miquë (QL:61).

KNEE occa –QL:70

KNIGHT roquen (rider, horseman)UT:282 cf. WJ:372

  KNOB tolma (defined as “protuberance contrieved to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle”, etc.), tolos (lump) –VT47:28, LT1:269

  KNOCK #pet– (strike), pa.t. pentë given. The verb is cited as “pete“, perhaps with a suffixed stem-vowel. KNOCK (keep on knocking) tamba-QL:73, TAM 

  KNOLL nólaNDOL

  KNOT narda, nútë (bond). Pl. perhaps *núter not *núti; cf. the similar formation tyávë “taste”, pl tyáver. –SNAR, NU

  KNOW ista (pa.t. sintë, also isintë; according to VT48:25 the pa.t. is “certainly irreg.”), KNOW ABOUT hanya– (understand, be skilled in dealing with), KNOWLEDGE handë (understanding),ista, istya, issë (lore), nólë (long study, lore, wisdom). (In Etym this word is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Nólë is so spelt also in Silm:432. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) HAVING KNOWLEDGE istima (wise, learned) –IS, VT48:25, LT2:339; KHAN, ÑGOL, Silm:432

  K-SERIES calmatémaLotR:1154

 

  <L>

  LABIALS parmatéma (p-series); LABIALIZED SERIES quessetémaLotR:1154

  LABERNUM Lindeloktë (singing cluster). (So in LT1:258, but Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya. Read *Lindelohtë?) –LT1:258

LABOUR (vb) móta- (toil), moia– (be afflicted) –MŌ, VT43:31

LACKING (adj.) penya (pl. penyë is attested) (inadequate). LACKING SIGN #penya tengwe (only pl. penyë tengwi is attested). This term, also translated “indadequate signs”, was used in early Elvish analysis of Quenya as the term for vowels with no preceding consonant, held (in many cases incorrectly) to have lost such a consonant. –VT39:6, 8

  LADY heriKHER, LT1:272 (GL:45 has quimellë). A quite different word which Tolkien also translated “Lady” is massánië, literally “breadgiver”, the title of the “Lady” or the highest among the elven-women of any people, she having the right to keep or give away lembas bread. See PM:404.

  LAKE ailin (pool) (LT2:339 also has ailo), ringwë (cold lake, pool [in mountains]). In the Etymologies as printed in LR, this word is cited as “ringe”, but according to VT46:11, ringwë is the proper reading. –AY/LT2:339, RINGI/VT46:11

  LAMENT (vb) naina- (also longer nainaina-), nyéna-; LAMENT (noun) nainië, nairëNAY/VT45:37, LT1:262, RGEO:66

  LAMP calma (light), calar –KAL/LotR:1157, VT47:13

  LAND nórë (dwelling-place, race, country, region where certain people live, nation, native land, family), nór (meaning ‘”‘land’ as opposed to water or sea”, WJ:413). In compounds #-ndor(when the first part of the compound end in a vowel, e.g. Valandor “Vala-land”, alternative form of Valinor), or –nor,dor (the latter can only occur when the first part of the compound ends in –l, –r, or –n; in other combinations d cannot occur in Noldorin Quenya). Another ending occurring in the names of lands issta (see VT43:15).  Cf. also lóna (remote land difficult to reach, island. Note: a homophone means “dark”); WESTLAND Númenor, Númenórë (Westernesse);LAND OF GIFT (a name of Númenor) Andor (< *Annandor, see GIFT), LAND OF THE WEST Númendor, LAND OF THE VALAR Valinor, Valinórë.  –NDOR/NŌ/Silm:430/ WJ:413, LONO, Silm:414, 313, 430, VT49:26

  LANGUAGE quetil (tongue, talk), lambë (tongue). The latter was “the usual word, in non-technical use, for ‘language’.” (WJ:394) Only the Loremasters used the technical term tengwesta “system or code of signs” instead; this word is also glossed “grammar”. Notice that lambë is also used for “dialect” (VT39:15).LANGUAGE (as an abstract, the ability to speak or the “art” of making speech) tengwestië. LANGUAGE with especial reference to phonology: Lambelë. LANGUAGE OF THE VALAR Lambë Valarinwa (lit. *”Valarin language”),LANGUAGE OF THE ELDAR Eldarissa (the latter may not be a valid word in LotR-style Quenya), LANGUAGE OF THE HANDS mátengwië –KWET/VT45:25, WJ:394, 397, VT39:15, LT2:339, VT47:9

  LARCH finë (stem *fini-) –SPIN (the word is also glossed “a single hair”, PM:362)

  LARGE hoa (big), also alta, alat- (great in size) (Tolkien’s definition of alta word was actually illegible, but see GREAT), úvëa (very large, abundant, in a very great number), úra (note: a homophone means “nasty, evil”; some would say these later glosses render the word úra = “large” obsolete.) –PE17:115, ÁLAT, UB, UR

  LARK lirulin (prob. *lirulind-, cf. lindo “singing bird”) –MR:238/252, LIN2

  LAST (adj.) tella (hindmost), telda (final), métima (final, ultimate), telwa (late), LAST YEAR yenya; LAST DAY OF YEAR quantien, THE LAST-COMERS Teleri (the Hindmost) –TELES, WJ:411, MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:267, YEN, Silm:421

  LASTING vórë (adj.?), also vórëa (continuous, enduring); LASTING QUALITY voronwië (endurance) –VT45:7, BORÓN

  LATE telwa (last) –LT1:267

  LAUGH lala –PM:359 cf. 343. (Note: a homophone means “deny”.) Past tense perhaps *landë, given the derivation stated (whereas lala “deny” might have the past tense *lalanë or *lallë).

  LAW sanyë (Þ)(rule), axan (rule, commandment, as proceeding primarily from Eru; pl. axani is attested); LAW-ABIDING sanya (Þ) (normal, regular) (variant vorosanya with a prefixed element meaning “ever”). –STAN, WJ:399, VT39:30, 23, VT46:16

  LAWN palis (sward) –LT1:264

  LAY lirilla (song) –LT1:258

LEAD tulya– (+ allative: lead into). Another form of similar meaning, mittanya-, was possibly abandoned by Tolkien. –VT43:22

  LEAD (the metal) canu, LEADEN canuvaLT1:268

  LEAF lassë (pl. lassi is attested); HAVING MANY LEAVES lillassëa (pl lillassië is attested); COLLECTION OF LEAVES olassië (foliage); PUT FORTH LEAVES OR FLOWERS *lohta- (altered from the actual reading lokta because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) (sprout). LEAF-SHAPED lassecanta; LEAF-FALL lasselanta (autumn or the beginning of winter; see also FADING); LEAF-GREY lassemista –LAS1, Nam, VT39:9, LT1:254, MC:222, 223, Letters:282, LT1:258, KAT, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224

  LEAGUE lár (basic meaning “pause” – in marches a brief halt was made for each league). A lár was defined as five thousand rangar; see YARD. A ranga was approximately 38 inches, so a lár was “5277 yards, two feet and four inches [ca. 4826 meters], supposing the equivalence to be exact” – close enough to our league of 5280 yards to justify this translation. –UT:285

LEANING talta (sloping, tilted) –TALÁT

  LEAP cap– (jump); halta-; LEAPING (noun) haloitë (pl. haloisi is attested) –PE16:134, LT1:254

LEARN #par– (acquire information, not by experience or observation, but by communication, by the instruction, or by written accounts, of others). Paranyë (apárien) parmanen, “I am learning (have learnt) by means of a book” –PE17:180

  LEARNED istima (wise, having knowledge), nóla (wise).  (In Etym, the latter word is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Cf. also the spelling of the related word nólë in Silm:432. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) LEARNED MAN istyar (scholar) –IS, ÑGOL

LEATHER (dressed leather) alu –QL:30

  LEAVE (vb) auta- (go away, pass), pa.t. oantë, oantië (in the physical sense “went away [to another place]”) or vánë (“the most frequently used past [tense]” – less “physical” than oantë, meaning “disappeared” rather than “went away”), perf. avánië (pl avánier is attested); perf. vánië with no augment may occur in verse. For “leave”, Etym also has lesta, pa.t. lendë; this is also the past tense of “go”. The stem from which lesta- is derived was “replaced” by another. Lesta has a wholly different meaning in later writings; see GIRDLE, MEASURE. LEAVE OUT hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, exclude, abandon, forsake) –WJ:366, ELED

  LEAVE (noun) – with leave of: lenémë (+ genitive)

  LEFT hyarya; LEFT HAND hyarma, LEFT-HANDED hyarmaitë (stem *hyarmaiti-) –KHYAR, VT47:6

  LEG telco (pl. telqui) (stem) –TELÉK

  LEGENDARIUM OF THE FATHERS OF MEN Atanatárion (lit. simply “of the Fathers of Men”) –MR:373

  LEGOLAS LaiqualassëLT1:267

  LEMBAS coimas (life-bread) (prob. coimast[a]-, cf. masta “bread”) (life-bread) –Silm:406/429

  LENGTHENED taina (extended, stretched, elongated); LENGTHENING tailë (extension) –TAY cf. VT39:7

LESS mis (adverb); suffixLESSlóra (= “without”; thislóra is a suffix used to derive adjectives; Tolkien gave the example ómalóra “voiceless”). The earlier “Qenya” suffixviltë,valta of similar meaning may not be valid in LotR-style Quenya. –PE14:80, VT45:28, GL:23

  LESSEN píca (part. #pícala is attested) (dwindle) –MC:223, 222

LET (see ALLOW); LET GO lerya (release, set free), LET GO or LET LOOSE sen– (to free).LET IT BE THAT nái (in Namárië: nai; the editor conjectures that nái is an etymological form, VT49:36). –VT41:5, 6; VT43:18, VT49:28

  LETTER tengwa (pl. tengwar is attested; this word was used primarily of the Fëanorian letters. However, the term “Tengwar of Rúmil” occurring in LotR:1151 seems to indicate that the word tengwa can indeed be used of a letter of any kind, not only the Fëanorian letters. In non-technical use tengwa may also be translated “consonant” [q.v.]. It is uncertain whether tengwa “letter” can be used in the sense mail, text sent in the post; the primary meaning is clearly “character, a single symbol in writing”.) The noun tengwa is also the source of the verb tengwa– “read”. – Another word for “letter” is sarat (pl. sarati is attested) – an older [MET] word Tolkien notes was used of “a ‘letter’ or any individual significant mark”, used of the Rúmilian letters after the invention of the Fëanorian Tengwar (but cf. the term “Tengwar of Rúmil” mentioned above). –TEK, WJ:396, VT49:48, LotR:1151

LIBERTY (see FREE); – DEPRIVE OF LIBERTY avalerya– (bind, make fast, restrain) –VT41:5, 6

  LICK salpa- (sup, sip), #lav(lavin “I lick”, 1st pers. aorist; past tense #lávë is attested in the word undulávë “downlicked” in Nam); LICK (frequentatively) lapsa-SÁLAP cf. LT1:266, DAB/Nam

  LIE (noun, = untruth) furu (read perhaps *huru since Tolkien decided that fu– becomes *hu– in Quenya) –LT2:340, GL:36

LIE (1) (vb, not “tell a lie” but “lie [horisontally]”) caita- (pa.t. #cainë with the alternative cëantë); LIE HEAVY lumna- (Note: this is also an adjective meaning “lying heavy”; see OPPRESSIVE) –Nam/RGEO:67, VT48:12, 13, DUB

LIE (2) (vb, tell a lie) fur– (conceal) (read perhaps *hur– since Tolkien decided that fu– becomes *hu– in Quenya) –LT2:340

  LIFE #coivië (attested with a pronominal suffix: coivierya, “his/her life”), cuilë (being alive; obsoleting coi, coirë in LT1:257; the latter means “stirring, spring” in Tolkien’s later Quenya); NEW LIFE laito, laisi (vigour, youth), LIFE-BREAD coimas (prob. coimast[a]-, cf. masta “bread”) (lembas) –VT49:41,:42, KUY, LT1:267, Silm:406/429

  LIFT UP orta- (raise, rise; pa.t. ortanë is attested) –Nam/ORO/RGEO:67

  LIGHT cálë, cala; A LIGHT calina (which is basically the adjective “light”, but it is used substantively in coacalina; see LIGHT OF THE HOUSE under HOUSE), calma (lamp), GOLDEN LIGHT laurë, LIGHT (adj) calina; RAY OF LIGHT alca; GLITTERING LIGHT rilma; STARLIGHT or LIGHT OF SILPION (Telperion) silmë (†silver), MOONLIGHT isilmë; FLASHING OR [?STARRY] LIGHT élë; EMIT LIGHT faina-; LIGHT-ELVES, ELVES OF THE LIGHT Calaquendi; LIGHT-CLEFT Calacirya (gen. Calaciryo is attested)  –KAL, MR:250, VT49:47, AKLA-R, RIL, SIL/LotR:1157, MC:223, VT45:12 PHAY, WJ:361/Silm:61, RGEO:70/Nam

LIKE (vb): “I like it” can be paraphrased as nas mara nin, “it is good to me” (good from my perspective) (VT49:30). The idiom thus involves the verb “to be” + mara (read mára) “good” + a dative form representing what in English is the subject.

  LIKE (prep) ve (as) The expression “like that” (= “so, also”) may be translated ta as in ta mára “so good” –Nam/RGEO:66, 67, VT49:12

LIKEN sesta– (compare) –QL:82

  LILY indil (“or other large single flower”), nénu (= yellow water lily) –WJ:399, LT1:248

  LINE OF SURF falassë (beach, shore) –Silm:431

  LINDI Lindi (What the Nandorin Elves called themselves; the word could be adopted unchanged into Exilic Quenya. Sg #Lindë?) –WJ:385

  LINDIL Sindarin form of LINDI, q.v. –WJ:385

  LINDON Lindon, LindónëWJ:385

LINGER lenda –VT45:27

LINGUISTIC LOREMASTERS (VT48:6) Lambengolmor (sg.ngolmo); see LOREMASTER under LORE. –VT48:6

LINE tië (path, direction, course, way, road), tëa (straight line, road) (note: not to be confused with the verb tëa– “indicate”), téma (row, series) (pl. témar is attested in LotR:1153) –TE3/RGEO:67, TEÑ

LINK (noun) #limë (stem *limi-), isolated from málimë “hand-link = wrist” –VT47:6

  LIP (so according to late sources; glossed “mouth” in the Etymologies, stem PEG), dual peu “the two lips, the mouth-opening”. Early “Qenya” had cíla for “lip”. –VT39:9/VT47:12, 35, GN:24

  LION (pl rávi) (so in Etym; LT1:260 has rau, but pl rávi is the same.) (Note: is also a preposition meaning “on behalf of”.) SHE-LION ravennë –RAW, LT1:260

  LIQUID (adj) sírima (flowing) –LT1:265

  LISTEN lasta-; LISTENING (adj) lasta (hearing) –LAS2

  LITTLE (see also SMALL) titta (tiny). LITTLE ELF Teler, Telellë (adj. telerëa, telella); LITTLE FINGER lepinca, lepincë (with stem lepinci– given older form lepinki, VT48:18), nícë; in children’s play also called winimo “baby” (Exilic *vinimo). LITTLE TOE, see under TOE. –TIT, LT1:267, VT47:10, 26, VT48:5

  LO! ela (look! see!) (directing sight to an actually visible object), also (now see!) Note: a homophone means “what is more”. –WJ:362 cf. 360, VT47:31

LOAF cornëLT1:257

  LOATHE yelta- (abhor); LOATHING (noun) yelmë (“yelma” in the published Etymologies is a misreading, VT45:11); LOATHSOME yelwaDYEL, VT45:11

LOCK OF HAIR findë (tress), fassë (shaggy lock, tangled hair) –SPIN

  LOFTY tára (tall, high); compare antara “very lofty”. Also arta (exalted, noble; note that homophones mean “athwart” and also “fort”). (According to Letters:282, Varda means “Lofty” [WJ:402 has “the Sublime”], but this word should probably not be used as a common adjective.) LOFTY TOWER see TOWER. –TĀ/Silm:437/LT1:264, VT45:36, VT46:17, PM:354

  LOGDRAWING turuhalmë –LT1:270

  LONELY eressëa (solitary); LONELY ISLE Tol Eressëa (tol “isle” often being omitted) –ERE, RGEO:70

  LONG (adj) anda, sóra (trailing); LONG AGO andanéya, anda né; LONG AND THIN lenwa (straight, narrow); LONG (adverb, of time:) andavë;LONG YEAR (144 solar years, an Elvish “century”) yén (pl. yéni is attested) LONG-MARK andatehta –ÁNAD, LT2:344, 341, VT49:31, LotR:989, Nam/LotR:1141/YEN, TEK    

  LONG FOR milya- (Note: milya is also an adjective “soft, gentle, weak”);GREAT LONGINGmavoinëMIL-IK, LT2:345

  LONG-LASTING voronwa (enduring) –BORÓN

LOOK AT yéta-; LOOK! (interj) en (there, look! yonder)  LOOK! ela (lo! see!) (directing sight to an actually visible object) LOOK FOR saca– (pa.t. sácë) (pursue, search) –LT1:262, EN, WJ:362 cf. 360, QL:81

  LOOM (noun) lanwa, in Tolkien’s early “Qenya” also windelëLAN, LT1:254

  LOOSE lenca- (in the printed Etymologies, the n of this word was misread as u, VT45:27), lehta- (slacken). LET LOOSE sen– (let go, free) –LEK, VT43:18

  LORD heru (pl. #heruvi, gen.pl. #heruion), hér, as final part of compounds: #her, e.g. Ostoher *”City-Lord”. The form Héru with a long é occurs in VT43:28, 29 (where i Héru “the Lord” refers to God). LORDSHIP hérë;LORD OF TREES Aldaron (a name of Oromë) –LT1:272, Silm:432, Letters:282, VT44:12, LotR:1122, Silm:32, 378, VT41:9

  LORE nólë (long study, wisdom, knowledge), †ingolë (deep lore, magic [in WJ:382, the gloss is simply “lore”, and the word is not stated to be poetic]), issë; SECRET LOREnolwë (wisdom). (These forms may obsolete nólemë in LT1:263. In some sources, nólë and nolwë are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Cf. also the spelling of the related word nólë in Silm:432. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) LOREMASTER ingolmo (In Lambengolmor “Loremasters of Tongues” the initial i of ingolmo [pl ingolmor]has disappeared; perhaps #ngolmo is the form used in compounds when the first part of the compound ends in a vowel.) –ÑGOL, LT2:339, WJ:382, WJ:383/396

LOST vanwa (gone, departed, vanished, past and over, no longer to be had, dead); ONE LOST OR FORSAKEN BY FRIENDS hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (waif, outcast, outlaw) –WAN, Nam, WJ:366, 365

  LOT marto (fortune, fate) –LT2:348

  LOUD SOUND róma (trumpet-sound) (Note: in early “Qenya”, róma also means “shoulder”.) MUSICAL SOUND lin (stem lind-) (melody) –ROM, LotR:488 cf. Letters:308       

  LOVE (vb, love as friend) mel- (melinyes and melin sé “I love him”, VT49:15, 21). LOVE (noun) melmë (LT1:262 has meles, melessë); LOVELY melwa, LOVING nilda (friendly), méla (affectionate), BELOVED melda (dear, sweet), LOVER meldo (pl meldor is attested), melindo (m.), melissë (f.); LOVEABLE melima (fair), írima (desirable) –MEL, LT1:262, WJ:412, NIL, VT39:11, ID  

  LOW, LOWLYING tumna (deep, profound, dark or hidden); LOWER AIR vilma (earlier [MET] wilma), Aiwenor (lit. “Birdland”).LOWTIDE nanwë (ebb) –TUB cf. LT1:271, WIL, AIWĒ, VT48:26

  LOWER (vb) luvu- (brood); DARK LOWERING CLOUD lumbo (pl. lumbor is attested). –LT1:259

LOWLY (adj.) nalda (also = valley, as adj.) –QL:66

  LUCK valto (LT2:348 gives mart “a piece of luck”, but word-final rt does not occur in LotR-style Quenya. Read *martë or something similar?) –LT1:272, LT2:348

  LUMP tolos (knob) –LT1:269

LUNAR MONTH ránasta –VT48:11

  LUST mailë; LUSTFUL mailëaMIL-IK

  LYING HEAVY lumna(heavy, burdensome, oppressive, ominous) Combined with the superlative prefix an-, this word should appear as *andumna because d was the initial sound of the original root. (Note: lumna is also a verb meaning “lie heavy”); LYING IN BED caila (bedridden, ?sickness) –DUB, KAY/VT45:19

  LYRE salmaLT1:265

 

  <M>

  MAEDHROS Nelyafinwë (meaning “Finwë third”, not equivalent in sense to Sindarin Maedhros. The short form of the name was Nelyo. His mother-name [q.v.], “recorded….though never used in narrative”, was Maitimo “well-shaped one”. He also had a nickname Russandol “copper-top”) –PM:352, 353

MAGIC †ingolë (deep lore). In LT1:269, curu is glossed “magic, wizardry”, but in Etym the gloss is simply “skill”. MAGIC (adj.) sairina –ÑGOL, GL:72

  MAGLOR Canafinwë, short form Cáno(not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is the cognate of his “mother-name” Macalaurë, “recorded…though never used in narrative”). –PM:352, 353

  MAID, MAIDEN wendë, vendë (the latter is the Exilic Quenya form),also short formwen with stem wend– as in pl. wendi (girl) (read v– for w– in Exilic Quenya). Tolkien also used the word wendë (variants vénë, véndë, read evidently vendë) to translate “virgin” in his Quenya version of a Catholic prayer, where the reference is to the Virgin Mary. According to VT47:17, this term can be used of a “maiden” of any age up to fully adult (until marriage). In compoundswen, e.g. Nerwen “Man-maiden” (probably with stem *-wend-).MAIDENHOOD wendelë (Exilic Quenya *vendelë). –WEN, LT1:271/273/Silm:439, VT44:10, 18, VT47:17

*MAIDENLY (or *VIRGINAL) *vénëa (only attested in elided form vénë’) –VT44:10

  MAKE #car(1st pers. aorist carin “I make, build”. The same verb is translated “form” in WJ:391: i carir quettar, “those who form words”. According to Etym the past tense is carnë, though FS and SD:246 have cárë. Past participle #carna *“made” is attested in Vincarna *”newly-made” in MR:305; the longer participial form carina occurs in VT43:15, read probably *cárina with a long vowel to go with such late participial forms like rácina “broken”).MAKING carmë (glossed “art” in UT:396 and is also translated “production”, but cf. the following:) NAME-MAKING Essecarmë (an Eldarin seremony in which the father of a child announces its name.) MAKE FASTavalerya– (bind, restrain, deprive of liberty). TO (MAKE) FIT camta(sic; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya, and while the source does not explicitly say that this word is Quenya, it is difficult to understand what other language could be intended) (suit, accomodate, adapt). MAKE FOR IT mína– (desire to go in some direction, to wish to go to a place, have some end in view). –KAR, WJ:391, MR:214, VT41:5, 6, VT44:14, VT39:11

  MALE (noun) hanu (man, male of Men/Elves or animals); MALE (adj) hanwa3AN, VT45:16, INI

  MAN nér (ner-; pl. neri given) (#ner as the final element in compounds, as in vëaner and úner, see below), †vëo (-wëas final element in compounds); hanu (male); (ADULT) MAN vëaner; MANLY vëa (adult, vigorous); LARGE/STRONG MAN nerdo, SMALL MAN nercë (perhaps with stem nerci-) MANHOOD vië (vigour); MAN-SPEARHEAD (a wedge-formation of soldiers) nernehta, NOMAN úner (All these words can apparently be used of adult males of any sentient race. For “Men” in the sence “humans”, see MORTALS, FOLLOWERS.) –DER, WEG (cf. VT46:21 indicating that vëo should be marked as an archaic/poetic word), VT47:33, VT45:16, UT:282, UT:211
MANAGE mahta- (deal with, fight, handle, manage, wield, wield a weapon); pa.t. mahtanë is attested. –MAK/MA3/VT39:11, VT47:6, 18, 19, VT49:10

MANNER (method). Note: can also be an emphatic pronoun “you”, plural. AFTER THE MANNER can be expressed by ve “as, like” + genitive, as in the phrase ve quenderinwë coaron “after the manner of bodies of Elven-kind” –PE17:74, 174

MANTLE (vb.) fanta– (to cloak, veil) –VT43:22

  MANY limbë, also prefix lin- (by assimilation it becomes lil- before l, as in lillassëa “having many leaves”; before m, r, s it would similarly become *lim-, *lir-, *lis-). Instead of using the early “Qenya” form limbë for “many”, it may be safer to use the later form rimba, by Tolkien glossed “numerous” (q.v. for reference). –LT2:342, LI, Plotz letter

  MAR #hasta- (verb stem isolated from the past participle hastaina, see below); MARRED hastaina (Arda Marred = Arda Hastaina); UNMARRED alahasta –MR:255, 254

  MARBLE alas, alast –QL:30, GL:39

  MARCH SúlimëLotR:1144/Silm:437 (not capitalized in the latter source)

  MARINER ciryamo, (professional mariner:) ëarendur, Eärendilyon (“son of Eärendil [used of any mariner]”, prob. *Eärendilyond-)UT:8, Letters:386, LT1:250

  MARK (in writing) tehta (sign, diacritic) (In LotR:1155, this word is applied to the supralinear vowel-signs of Fëanorian writing, and pl tehtar is attested.) sarat (pl. sarati is attested), originally [MET] a word used of “a ‘letter’ or any individual significant mark”, but after the invention of the Tengwar primarily used of the Rúmilian letters. TINY MARK tixë (dot, point) –TEK/VT39:17, TIK, WJ:396

MARRY verya– (intransitive, with the person one marries in the allative case: veryanen senna *“I married him/her”, compare English “I got married to him/her”, though the Quenya phrase is also suggested to mean “I was joined to him/her”). The word verya– also means “dare”, but since this is transitive and would always be followed by a direct object, the two verbs can be distinguished. –VT49:45, 46

MARS CarnilBasic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55

MARY (Mother of Jesus) María –VT43:28, VT44:18 (“Maria” in VT44:12 lacks the accent, but this is probably a mere slip)

MAST 1) (on ship) tyulma, 2) (fruit of beech) ferna (beechnuts) –TYUL/SD:419, PHER

  MASTER (noun) heru (pl. #heruvi, gen.pl. #heruion) (lord), #tur (cf. Fëanturi “Masters of Spirits”, a name of the Valar Mandos and Irmo).MASTER OF DOOM Turambar, MASTER OF DESIRE Irmo (lit. “Desirer”, the name of a Vala); MASTERY túrë (victory, strength, might); MASTERED #turúna (only the form turún`, with the final *-a elided, is attested. Silm:269 has turun instead of turún` – the accent and he elision mark seem to have been omitted.) –KHER, TUR/UT:438, Silm:261/269/423, 405, UT:138

  MATRIMONY vestaBES

  MATTER (basic matter:) erma; PHYSICAL MATTER orma, hroa (the latter is also used = “body”). THAT MATTER tama; CONSIDERING A MATTER, see under C. –MR:338, 218, 216, VT49:11

  MAVWIN MavoinëLT2:345

  MAY (noun, the month) Lótessë (In LT1:252/254, the word for May is Kalainis, but this is hardly a valid word in Tolkien’s later Quenya.) –LotR:1144

MAY (verb): The impersonal verb ec– + dative can be used to express “may” in the sense of “have chance, opportunity or permission”: ecë nin carë sa “I can do that”, ecë nin? “please, may I?” (VT49:20). MAY as a verb “be allowed to” can be rendered by lerta-, to be able in the sense of being allowed (see BE ABLE): *Lertal carë ta, “you may (you are allowed) to do that”. MAY expressing uncertainty can be expressed by slipping in the particle : “He may have done that” = *cé acáries ta (maybe he has done that); see MAY BE. For MAY in wishes (may it happen, may it be), the word nai is used. It can directly precede an adjective (nai amanya onnalya “may your child [be] blessed”, VT49:41) or be constructed with a verb in the future tense (nai hiruvalyë Valimar *”may you find Valimar”, Nam) or the present tense (nai Eru lye mánata *“may God be blessing you”, VT49:41).

MAY BE (maybe) , ce (participle indicating uncertainty, like *“maybe, perhaps”), cenasit, cenasta –VT49:19, 27

MAY IT BE SO, see AMEN

  ME: Certain Tolkien manuscripts supposedly provide nye as one word for “me” (compare tye “thee”). It may be, however, that in Tolkien’s later conception ni, “I” can also be used as object “me” (in late material it listed together with other pronouns that are attested both as subject and object, such as lye, and me, VT49:51). The endingn, attested only as subject, may perhaps be employed following another pronominal ending: *Utúvielyen, “thou (-lye-) hast found me (-n)”. Case endings may be added to ni, e.g. dative nin “for me” (Nam). See I.

MEAD míruvórë (nectar, drink of the Valar) –NAM, RGEO:66, 69, LT1:261

  MEADOWLT1:267 (GL:39) gives lairë, but this word already has two different meanings in Tolkien’s later Quenya (“summer” and “poem”), so it is somewhat doubtful whether this word from Tolkien’s earliest linguistic constructions remained conceptually valid at later stages.

  MEAL 1) (session of eating) mat (stem matt-). Also used = meal time. 2) (flour) porë (stem pori-) –QL:59, POR

  MEAN faica (contemptible) –SPAY

MEANS – BY THIS MEANS, see SO

  MEASURE #lesta (only attested in instrumental form lestanen “in measure”. Note: #lesta also means “girdle”.) –FS

  MEAT apsa (cooked food) –AP

MEETING (junction of the direction of two persons or groups:) omentië,(of three or more coming from different directions:) yomeniëWJ:367, 407, LotR:94

  MELIAN Melyanna (dear gift) –Silm:434

  MELODY lin (lind-) (musical sound), MELODIOUS lindelëa –LT1:258, cf. LotR:488 and Letters:308      

  MEN see MAN or MORTALS, FOLLOWERS

MENTAL MESSAGE sanwë-menta (thought-sending) –VT41:5

MERCURY (the planet, not the metal) ElemmírëBasic Quenya:24

MERCHILD oar (child of the sea), MERMAID oaris (oarits-), oarwen (prob. *oarwend-) (so in LT1:263 – read ëaris, ëarwen in Tolkien’s later Quenya, since the word for “sea” was altered to ëar?)

MERCY HAVE MERCY órava– (+ locative to denote the object of the mercy; compare English “have mercy on [someone]; Tolkien expressed “have mercy on us” as órava messë) Another form, ócama or ocama, was possibly abandoned by Tolkien. –VT44:12-14

MERRIMENT alassë (joy) –GALÁS

MESSAGE menta (sending) –VT41:5

  MESH rembëLotR:1149

  METAL tinco, rautaTINKŌ/LotR:1157, RAUTĀ

METHOD (manner). Note: can also be an emphatic pronoun “you”, plural. –PE17:74

  MEWING miulë (whining)

MICKLEBURG Túrosto (Belegost) –WJ:389

MIDDLE (noun) endë (core, centre); MIDDLE (prob. adj) enya, endya (In Noldorin Quenya, enya would be the natural form – endya looks like Vanyarin Quenya. Cf. the name of the language itself in the two dialects, Quenya vs. Quendya.) MIDDLE-DAY #enderë(only pl enderi is attested; for sg #enderë cf. yestarë, mettarë, the first and the last day of the year. The “middle-days” were three days inserted between the months of yávië and quellë in the Calendar of Imladris.) MIDDLE FINGER lependë, lepenel, in children’s play also called tolyo or tollo (“sticker-up”, also used of middle toe), yonyo (“son, big boy”, again used of middle toe as well) or hanno (“brother”). –ÉNED, cf. WJ:361, LotR:1142, VT47:10, VT47:12, 14, VT48:6

  MIDDLE-EARTH Endórë, Endor (defined as “centre of the world” under ÉNED; allative form Endorenna is attested in LotR. Other names are also glossed “Middle-earth”: Ambarenya, Endamar; see also EAST) –LotR:1003, ÉNED, MBAR

MIGHT túrë (strength, victory, mastery) –QL:95

  MIGHTY taura, poldórëa (a title of Tulkas);MIGHTY-RISING Melkórë (> Melkor) (uprising of Power), THE MIGHTY Melko (an alternative form of Melkor, derived from an unattested adjective *melka, *melca “mighty”, with connotations of violence.) –TUR, LT1:264/GL:64, MR:350

  MILCH COWyaxë. (An alternative form yaxi, glossed “cow”, looks like a plural in LotR-style Quenya, unless it connects with the few other feminine forms ini, like tári “queen”.) –GL:36

  MIND sáma (pl. sámar is given), sanar (“thinker, reflector”), indo (heart, mood), (inner mind:) órë (heart) (Note: a homophone means “rising”), síma (imagination), also (?) isima. MIND-MOOD inwisti –VT39:23, VT41:13, MR:216, LotR:1157, VT49:16, MR:229

  MINISTER arandur (king’s servant, steward) –Letters:386, UT:313

  MISERABLE angayanda, MISERY angayassë –QL:34, LT1:249

  MIST hísië (Þ), hísë (Þ)(stem hísi-) (fog. Note: a homophone means “dusk”. For “mist” writers may prefer hísië, the form occurring in LotR.) –Nam/RGEO:67, KHIS

  MOAT see WALL AND MOAT

  MOCKING yaiwë (scorn) –YAY

  MOIST nítë (stem *níti-) (dewy) –NEI

MOLE noldarë, nolpa –GL:30

MOMENT, see OCCASION. Adj. OF MOMENT valdëa (important) –QL:102

MONEY: The word telpë “silver” is used for “money” in one example. –PE14:54

  MONSTER ulundo, úvanimo (creature of Melkor). In LT1:236, Úvanimor are said to be “monsters, giants, and ogres”. See also ORC. –ÚLUG, BAN/LT1:272/VT45:7

  MONTH asta (pl astar is attested); this basically means “division, a part” (esp. one of other equal parts), here used of a division of the year. LUNAR MONTH ránasta –LotR:1142, VT48:11

  MOOD indo (heart, mind) –ID

  MOON Isil (-th-), Rána (so in Silm, VT47:11 and UT; Etym has Rana with a short a), CRESCENT MOON (bow), NEW MOON ceuran-, MOONLIGHT isilmëI/THIL/LotR:1148, Silm:436/UT:242, RAN, LT1:271, VT48:7, MC:222, 223

MORE ambë (adverb), amba (adjective/noun), “used of any kind of measurement spatial, temporal, or quantitative” (note that amba is also the adverb “up”). Early material lists lil as a term for “more”. ONE MORE enta (another). (Note: a homophone means “that yonder”). MOREOVER, FURTHERMORE, WHAT IS MORE entë, yëa, (Note: is also an interjection “lo! now see!”) See FURTHERMORE. –PE17:91, PE14:80, VT47:15, 31

  MORGOTH Moringotto (the oldest [MET] form was Moriñgotho) (Black Foe) –MR:194

  MORN (early) artuilë, tuilë (the latter is also used in the sense “springtime”) –TUY

MORNING (noun) arin (LT1:254 gives cálë, but this word means “light” in later writings), MORNING (used as adj?) arinya (early) –AR1

  MORTAL fírima (pl. Fírimar is attested, lit. “those apt to die”, WJ:387), also in the personal (masculine) form #fírimo (pl. fírimor, VT49:10, pl. allative fírimonnar “to mortals”, VT44:35). The form firima with a short i occurs in VT46:4. Firya (pl. Firyar is attested); MORTAL MAN firë (pl firi is given but seems perfectly regular) –PHIR, WJ:387

MOTH malo (2) (*malu-, pl. malwi). Note: a homophone means “pollen, yellow powder”. –QL:58

  MOTHER amillë, also short amil (probably with stem amill-), ammë (see also MUMMY). The form ontaril in VT43:32 and the variants #ontari, #ontarië in VT44:7, 18 seem to be more technical terms, etymologically *”female begetter”. MY MOTHER emya (for em-nya, VT48:19). MOTHER-NAME (OF INSIGHT) #amilessë (tercenya) (i.e., names given by Elvish mothers to their children, indicating some dominant feature of the nature of the child as perceived by its mother. Only pl amilessi tercenyë is attested.)MOTHER OF GOD (Mary, in Tolkien’s Quenya renderings of Catholic prayers) Eruamillë, Eruontari, Eruontarië –VT43:32, VT44:18-19, AM1, VT43:32, MR:217, VT43:32, VT44:7, 18

  MOUND coron, hahta (pile; the Sindarin cognate haudh is explicitly used of grave-mounds), cumbë (heap), tundo (stem *tundu-) (hill) –Sil:429, KHAG, KUB, TUN

  MOUNTAIN oron (#oront-, as in the pl. oronti) (oron also used = “mount”, e.g. Oron Oiolossë “Mount Everwhite”), MOUNTAIN-PEAK aicassë; MOUNTAIN-TOP orotinga, orto; MOUNTAIN PASS falqua(cleft, ravine), MOUNTAIN-DWELLING (adj) orofarnë (pl? Sg *orofarna?) –ÓROT/WJ:403, AYAK, VT47:28, LT2:341, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224

  MOUTH anto, (but is glossed “lip” in a late source, see VT39:9), assa (hole, opening, perforation), náva (“ñ”) (not only the lips but also the inside of the mouth – this word was apparently changed by Tolkien from páva), MOUTH OF RIVER etsir, WITH MOUTH FULL (= full to the brim) penquanta –LotR:1157, PEG, GAS, VT39:13 cf. 8, 19, ET, VT39:11

  MOVE (intransitive verb) lev-; also (of large and heavy things moving) rúma- (part. rúmala is attested) (shift, heave). SUDDEN MOVE (noun) rinca (twitch, jerk, trick) –PE16:132, MC:223, 222, VT46:11 cf. RIK(H)

MUCH olya (adj.), olë (adv.) –PE14:80

MUD luxo (luxu-) –QL:56

MUMMY (affectionate form of “mother”) emmë, emya (for emenya *”my mother”), also emil(inya) “(my) mother”, said to be the terms a child would use to address his or her mother. (In UT:191 the form mamil occurs, used by a child but not in address.) The words emmë, emya were also used in children’s play for “index finger” and “index toe” –VT47:10, 26, VT48:4

  MURK hui (fog, dark, night), MURKY huiva –LT1:253

  MURMUR nurru- (grumble) –MC:223

  MUSCLE tuo (sinew, strength) –TUG

  MUSIC lindalë (as in Ainulindalë “The Music of the Ainur”; LT1:258 has lindelë; the latter is also glossed “song”. The form lindelë “music” also turns up in the printed Etymologies, entry LIN2, but according to VT45:27, this is a misreading for lindalë in Tolkien’s manuscript.)Silm:378, LIN2/VT45:27

  MY-nya (possessive suffix), e.g. meldonya “my friend” (VT49:40, 48), tyenya “my tye” (VT49:51, this is a term of address used to a dear kins(wo)man, literally “my thou”, with tye as an intimate 2nd person pronoun). An i seems to be inserted between the ending and the noun when the latter ends in a consonant: atarinya “my father” (LR:61). If the last consonant(s) of the noun is n or the cluster nd, a contracted form may be used in vocatives: hinya “my child” (for hínanya, WJ:403), yonya “my son” (for *yondonya, LR:61). – “My” as an independent word is apparently ninya, (derived from the dative form nin “for me”), though in FS it is used as a quasi-suffix (indo-ninya “my heart”).

MYSELF (reflexive pronoun) immo (a general sg. reflexive pronoun, covering English “myself, him/herself, yourself”). A specific 1st person reflexive pronoun “myself” is imnë (for older imni; it is unclear whether the latter form was in use in later Quenya) –VT47:37

 

  <N>

NAIL (noun) taxë (the kind of nail used to fasten something); NAIL (of the finger) nyelet, pl. nyelexiTAK, PE15:75

  NAKED heldaSKEL

  NAME (noun) essë (pl. essi is attested, but see below concerning #esser as a possible alternative pl. form. Note: the word essë was also used in the sense “person as a whole”, body and soul.) AFTER-NAME epessë (i.e., “a nickname – mostly given as a title of admiration or honour”); MOTHER-NAME (OF INSIGHT) #amilessë (tercenya) (i.e. names given by Elvish mothers to their children, indicating some dominant feature of the nature of the child as perceived by its mother. Only pl amilessi tercenyë is attested.) NAME OF INSIGHT #essë tercenya (i.e., the same as “mother-name”; only pl essi tercenyë is attested); GIVEN (OR ADDED) NAME anessë (pl anessi is attested. This termincludes both “after-names” and “mother-names”.) NAME-MAKING Essecarmë (an Eldarin seremony in which the father of a child announces its name), NAME-CHOOSING Essecilmë (an Eldarin seremony in which a person chooses a name according to his or her personal lámatyávë or sound-taste); SELF-NAME #cilmessë (only pl. cilmessi is attested, said to mean more literally “names of personal choice”: #cilmë “choice” + essi “names”. PM:339 explains that “some among the exiles gave themselves names, as disguises or in reference to their own deeds and personal history: such names were called kilmessi ‘self-names’.”) PLACE NAME #nómessë (isolated fromthe gen. pl. form nómesseron, “of place-names”, VT42:17. This word suggests that the plural of essë can be esser as well as essi). –ES/LotR:1157/MR:216, UT:266, MR:217, 214, VT42:17

NAME (verb) esta –ES, VT45:12

NARRATIVE quenta (story, history) –KWET/VT39:16

  NARRATOR quentaroKWET

  NARROW náha, arca, lenwa (long and thin, straight) NARROW NECK yatta (isthmus); NARROW PATH axa; NARROW PROMONTORY nehtë (spear-head, gore, wedge. Note: a homophone means “honeycomb”) –PE17:166, AK, LT2:341, YAK, UT:282                  

  NASAL nengwëaNEÑ-WI

NASTY úra (evil) (Note: a homophone means “large”) –VT43:24

NATION nórë,nor (land, country, dwelling-place, native land, family) –LT1:272

NATIVE LAND nórë,nor (land, country, dwelling-place, nation, family) –LT1:272

NATURE ëa (universe). This term “was not held to include [illegible word: souls?] and spirits” –VT39:20

NAUSEA quámë (“q”) (sickness). NAUSEOUS, see SICK. –QL:76

  NAZGÛL Úlairi (Ring-wraiths) (pl; sg #Úlairë?) –Silm:362, 417

NEAR har, harëLT1:253

NECESSITY #sangië (isolated from sangiessemman “in our necessities”) –VT43:21, 44:8

  NECK yat (yaht-); NARROW NECK yatta (isthmus) –YAK

  NECKLACE firinga (carnanet) –LT2:346, GL:36

  NECTAR míruvórë (mead, drink of the Valar) –Nam, RGEO:66, LT1:260

  NEED (noun) maurëMBAW

NEIGHBOUR armaro, asambar, asambaro. The dual form attat is translated “2 fathers or neighbours” in one text. –VT48:20

  NEPTUNE Nénar (or less probably Luinil; it is not known for certain which of the two is Neptune and which is Uranus) –Basic Quenya:24, Silm:55

  NET natsë (web) –NAT

  NEW vinya (cf. Vinyamar “New Dwelling”, Vinyalondë “New Haven”), sinya, céva (fresh). NEW MOON ceuran-, NEW SUN AFTER SOLSTICE ceuranar. Early “Qenya” also has: NEW LIFE laito, laisi (vigour, youth) –Silm:425, UT:471, SIN, VT48:7, LT1:267

  NEXT (adv.) entoArct (Note: “next” as adjective, as in “the next time”, can be paraphrased as hilyala “following”.)

  NICKNAME (“mostly given as a title of admiration or honour”) epessë (after-name) –UT:266

  NIGHT lómë, (“Night, night-time, [shades of night]”, in LT1:255 glossed “dusk, gloom, darkness”; according to SD:415, lómë has the stem-form lómi), Fui, Hui (“Night” – but in LT1:253, hui is glossed “fog, dark, murk, night”), (“night, a night”), mórë (blackness, dark – obsoleting mori in LT1:260). In Valinorean usage, lómë “has no evil connotations; it is a word of peace and beauty and has none of the associations of fear and groping that, say, ‘dark’ has to us. For the evil sense I [sc. Tolkien’s character Lowdham] do not know the [Quenya] word”. For “night” in the “evil sense”, mórë seems to be the best candidate. Yet lómë evidently developed darker connotations among the Exiles, for when crying auta i lómë “the night is passing” before the Nirnaeth Arnoediad, the Noldor used the word metaphorically to refer to the rule of Morgoth. DOOR OF NIGHT, see DOOR. –DO3, PHUY, SD:306, Silm:229

  NIGHTINGALE lómelindë (pl lómelindi is attested; Etym also has morilindë), tindómerel (“daughter of twilight”, a kenning of or a poetic name for the nightingale; the Sindarin equivalent is tinúviel. Tolkien changed the meaning of the final element from “daughter” to “child”, see SEL-D-.) –DO3, Silm:64, MOR, TIN/Silm:422, 438

  NINE nertë (Tolkien abandoned the “Qenya” form olma, mentioned in LT1:258). For the syntax of numerals, see THREE.NINTH nertëa. For the use of nettë (“sister”) to denote the ninth digit in children’s play, see FOURTH FINGER. Fraction ONE NINTH neresta, nesta, nersat –NÉTER, VT48:6,

VT42:25, VT47:11

NINETEEN neterquë. For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. –VT48:21

  NO ui, possibly with uito as an emphatic variant (VT49:28-29), (also meaning “not)”. Ui (uito) and are probably used to deny facts, or what others present as facts. In a context of refusal, the interjection is to be preferred. It is derived from a stem that “expressed refusal to do what others might wish or urge, or prohibition of some action by others”. Cf also lala, lau, laumë “no, no indeed not, on the contrary; also used for asking incredulous questions”. Prefixes “no-, un-“: ú-, il-. SAY NO váquet- (forbid, refuse) (1st pers. sg aorist and past váquetin, váquenten are given), ava- (refuse) (pa.t. avanë is given; this verb was “little used in ordinary language”. Other forms occur in VT49:13, all with the ending –n “I”: Aorist avan, present ávan or ávëan, future avuvan > auvan, past avanen or aunen, perfect avávien. In one version, the forms ávëan and avanen are marked as poetic or archaic.) –LA, WJ:371 cf. 370, GŪ/UGU/VT46:20, WJ:370, KWET

  NO LONGER TO BE HAD vanwa (gone, dead, departed, lost, past, vanished) –WJ:366

  NOBLE (adj.) arta (exalted, lofty; the gloss “noble” is isolated from the use of arta in certain proper names, see relevant entries in the Quenya-English wordlist). NOBLE (noun, “a noble”) arquen.The element #ar- in Arfanyarassë (a name of Taniquetil) is said to mean “high (i.e., noble, revered). Arquen is simply #ar “noble” + quen “person”. NOBLE WOMAN (one of Galadriel’s names) Artanis. –WJ:372, WJ:416, PM:347

  NOGROD Návarot (Hollowbold, Novrod) –WJ:389

  NOISE hlóna, also short hlón (evidently hlon-, given the pl. hloni) (sound). Cf. also Qenya ran (ram-).  ROARING NOISErávë,(NOISE OF A) STORMraumo, NOISE OF LEAVES escë (rustle), SOUND/NOISE OF WIND –VT48:19, LT1:259/QL:79, MC:223, EZGE, VT47:12

  NOLDORIN Noldorin (= the language of the Noldor), Noldorinwa (= general adjective) –WJ:20, LR:201

  NOMAN ÚnerUT:211

NOOK winca (corner) (QL:104, there written ‘winka). Read *vinca if this early “Qenya” form is to be adapted to LotR-style Third Age Quenya.

  NORMAL sanya (Þ)(regular, law-abiding) (variant vorosanya with a prefixed element meaning “ever”). –STAN, VT46:16

  NORTH Formen, NORTHWARD formenna; NORTHERN fortë (stem *forti-), formenya; NORTHLANDS(a region in Númenor) ForostarPHOR, LotR:1157, VT49:26, UT:165, 439

  NOSE nengwë (stem *nengwi-), mundo (snout, cape), stem *mundu– given the primitive form mbundu. (Note: the latter word also means “ox”, though in the sense of “ox” it may have a different origin and stem-form.) –NEÑ-WI, MBUD

  NOT (as for not– as a prefix = un-, see below). According to VT42:33, is the stressed form of the negation, whereas la is the unstressed form (cf. la– as the pretonic prefix *”not-” or *”un-“, VT45:25). NO INDEED NOT lala;DON’T áva, avá; DON’T DO IT! áva carë!; I WILL NOT: (exclamation, also = Do not!); avan, ván, vanyë “I won’t”, avammë, vammë “we won’t” (notice that if plural rather than dual, Tolkien later revised the ending for “we” frommmë tolmë); NOT COUNTING hequa (leaving aside, excluding, except), NOT COUNTED unotë, unotëa (read *únotë, *únotëa?) (uncounted), NOT TO BE SAID, THAT MUST NOT BE SAID avaquétima, NOT TO BE TOLD OR RELATED avanyárima. There are also specific verbs for NOT BE, NOT DO; concerning these, see entry BE. –LA, WJ:371, 364/365, VT39:14, WJ:370

NOT- (prefix denying presence or possession of thing or quality) ú– (in-, un-). –VT39:14; according to LR:396 s.v. UGU, this prefix usually has a “bad sense”, cf. vanimor “fair folk” vs. úvanimor “monsters”

NOTHING munta –PE14:81

NOTWITHSTANDING, see ALTHOUGH

  NOVEMBER Hísimë(Þ) LotR:1144

  NOVROD Návarot (Hollowbold, Nogrod) –WJ:389

NOW , sín/sin (the latter form may evidently be used when the next word has an initial vowel; cf. the distribution of “a” and “an” in English. However, may also occur before vowels; the word appears before ar “and” in a text published in VT43:27.) Variant si.NOW SEE! (interjection) (lo!) Note: a homophone means “what is more”. –SI, cf. LR:47, VT43:27, VT43:34, VT47:31, VT49:18

  NUMBER nótë, LARGE NUMBER hosta, IN A VERY GREAT NUMBER úvëa; NUMBERLESS únótima (pl. únótimë attested) (uncountable, countless) –NOT, KHOTH, UB, Nam/VT39:14

NUMERAL #notessë (attested in pl. form notessi). In a Tengwar text, the word appears with a long ó (nótessi, sg. #nótessë). –VT47:14, VT48:14

  NUMEROUS rimba (frequent)

NYMPH wingil, wingild- (pl WIngildi is attested); falmar, falmarin (falmarind-) (Writers should use falmarin rather than falmar, thus avoiding any possible confusion with falmar “waves”.) –WIG/LT1:273, PHAL

 

  <O>

  O (vocative particle) a, e.g. a Eruion “(o) Son of God”.VT44:12, 15; LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308

OAK norno; HAVING MANY OAK-TREES lindornëaDÓRON, LIN

  OATH vérë (bond, troth, compact), vanda (pledge, solemn promise) –WED, UT:317

  OBLIGED nauta (bound) –NUT

  OBSCURE nulla (dark, dusky) OBSCURITY mordo (shadow, stain, smear, dimness) –NDUL, MOR/VT45:35

  OBSERVE use the word glossed “watch, heed”, q.v. Cf. LT1:258.

OCCASION (a time) –LU

  OCEAN (see SEA) The Great Ocean Alatairë (= Sindarin Belegaer); The Outer Ocean Vai (=Ekkaia?) –AYAR, LT1:271

  OCTOBER NarqueliëLotR:1144/1146

  ODOUR olmëÑOL (the Etymologies as printed in LR gives “holmë“, but according to VT46:6, Tolkien later struck out the initial h)

  OFF au- (verbal prefix implying motion “away from the speaker or the place of his thought”, as in auciri- “cut off, so that a portion is lost or no longer available”), hó- (verbal prefix implying motion away from something, but the point of view is outside the thing left: cf. hóciri- “cut off a required portion, so as to have it or use it”) –WJ:365, 366, 368

OFFSPRING #indi (isolated from Valarindi “offspring of the Valar, their children begotten in Arda”). The Quenya term is plural (sg. *indë). –MR:49

OGRE Úvanimo (see MONSTER). CANNIBAL-OGRES Sarquindi (sg #Sarquindë?) –LT1:236 cf. BAN, LT2:347

OIL millo –PE13:139

OINTMENT laivëLIB

  OLD yára (ancient, belonging to or descending from former times); intensive #anyára is attested with a dative ending in the phrase meldenya anyáran *”for my oldest [or, very old] friend” in the Elaine inscription. Other words translated “old”: enwina, linyenwa (having many years), (of things:) yerna (worn); OLDEN yárëa, yalúmëa, GET OLD yerya– (wear [out]) –MC:222 cf. 215, YEN, GYER

  OMINOUS lumna (lying heavy, burdensome, oppressive) Combined with the superlative prefix an-, this word should appear as *andumna because d was the initial sound of the original root. –DUB

OMNIFICENT ilucara (VT39:20)

OMNIPOTENT iluvala (VT39:20)

OMNISCIENT iluisa (VT39:20)

  ON or (so in LT1:256, but in LotR-style Quenya or is always translated “over”. Generally, English “on” may be rendered by the locative or the allative case, see UPON.) ON BEHALF OF , followed by dative, as in the example rá men “on behalf of us, for us”. Dative pronouns may be directly suffixed to : “for us” or “on behalf of us” is also attested in the one-word form rámen. (Note: is also a noun “lion”.) ON THE CONTRARY úsiëVT43:27, 28, 33, VT49:8

ONCE (= at one time in the past) nëa, néya –VT49:31

  ONCE UPON A TIME yassë, yalúmessë, yáressë (note: the first of these seems to clash with *yassë “in/on which”. Writers should use one of the two alternative forms, or the following:) andanéya, anda né (long ago) –YA, VT49:31

  ONE minë, min (obsoleting “Qenya” mir in LT1:260; a short variant min however appears in VT45:34, VT48:6), er (only, one, alone, but, still). A longer form of er, namely erëa, was possibly abandoned by Tolkien (VT44:17). Min, minë is “one” as the first of a series, whereas er is “one” in the context of something that is alone (Parma Eldalamberon #14, p. 82). When used in connection with a noun, er precedes it (VT49:45; according to this souce, er is indeclinable). ONE (= a person, someone) quén, quen– as in pl. queni (unstressed quen, “as a pronoun or final element in a compound”), also mo as an indefinite personal pronoun “one” or “somebody”, used in a sentence like “if one speaks evil…” (VT49:19, 20). THE ONE Eru (see GOD). For fractions ONE THIRD, ONE FOURTH etc., see entries for THIRD, FOURTH etc. –MINI, ERE/VT44:17, VT48:6, WJ:361 cf. 360, Silm:15, 431

ONE-HANDED MAN Ercambo –VT47:7

ONESELF immo (see HIMSELF). –VT49:21

ONLY er (but, still). In later sources, er is rather presented as the numeral “one”. Cf. also eressë (singly, alone, but in Tolkien’s later Quenya used as noun = solitude) –LT1:269, ERE

ONYX nyelecca –PE15:76

  OPEN (vb) panta- (unfurl, spread out); OPEN WIDE palu-, palya- (extend); OPEN (adj) panta, láta (“open, not closed”, VT41:5); (of land:) latin, latina (free, cleared); OPENING (as abstract) pantië (unfolding, revealing), latya (used as an abstract in the source), OPENING (as concrete) assa (hole, performation, mouth). OPENNESS látië; OPENMOUTHED fauca (thirsty, parched) –PAT, PAL, VT39:23, QL:72, GAS, LAT, VT39:23/VT41:5, PHAU

  OPPRESSIVE lumna (lying heavy, burdensome, ominous). Combined with the superlative prefix an-, this word should appear as *andumna because d was the initial sound of the original root. –DUB

OR (conjunction) hya (also used as noun “other thing”), hela; early “Qenya” also had varVT49:14, QL:100

  ORANGE culuina (colour adjective), culuma (fruit) –KUL

  ORC (goblin) urco (stem urcu-, pl. urqui) or orco (pl. orqui or orcor, in the former case probably with stem *orcu– throughout). LT1:264 has orc, but word-final rc does not occur in LotR-style Quenya. Here the gloss is “monster, demon”. Cf. WJ:390: “In the lore of the Blessed Realm the Q urko naturally seldom occurs, except in tales of the ancient days and the March, and then is vague in meaning, referring to anything that caused fear to the Elves, any dubious shape or shadow, or prowling creature.” –ÓROK, LT1:264, WJ:390

  ORDAINER Námo (Judge the name of a Vala) –Silm:411

  ORDER (noun) 1) (command) canwa (announcement); 2) (an “order” of people) heren (Heren Istarion “Order of Wizards”). For ORDER as a verb, see COMMAND; there is also the verbvala- (used of the Valar only, as in á vala Manwë “may Manwë order it”, Valar valuvar “the will of the Valar will be done”, *”the Valar will order [it]”. –PM:362, UT:388, WJ:404

  ORIENT ambaron (ambarón-), Ambarónë (a similar but untranslated word, Ambaróna, occurs in LotR) –AM2, LotR:490

  ORIGINATE auta- (invent, devise) –GAWA

  ORION Telumehtar (“warrior of the sky”, according to WJ:411 an old name, later [MET] evidently replaced by:) Menelmacar (“Swordsman of the Sky”) –TEL, WJ:411, LotR:1147 cf. 95

OTHER exë (noun, glossed “the other”, but the article may only indicate that this is a noun; likely there could be a distinction between exë “[an]other [one]” and *i exë “the other [one]”), exa (as adj., presumably behaving like other adjectives, e.g. *exa parma “[an]other book”, *exë parmar “other books”) Another adjective “other” is hyana, related to:OTHER PERSON hye, OTHER THING hya (the latter is also used as a conjunction “or”). –VT47:40, VT49:14, 15

  OUR: As described in the entry WE, the 3rd person pl. pronouns distinguish plural forms from dual (depending on whether two or more persons are involved) and exclusive forms from inclusive (depending on whether the party addressed is included in “we/our”). Tolkien revised the relevant endings repeatedly. According to one late resolution described in VT49:16, the endings for exclusive “our” are  –lma in the plural andmma as a dual form, hence *aldalma “our tree” (with an “our” of at least three persons, not including the party addressed), but *aldamma “our tree = my and one other person’s tree”. The corresponding inclusive forms arelwa (plural) andngwa (dual). Since the subject ending corresponding to the former is attested as “-lwe, –lve” (VT49:51),lwa can surely also appear as *-lva, as in *omentielva “our meeting” (attested in the genitive case: omentielvo “of our meeting”, WJ:367). Hence *aldalwa/aldalva “our tree” (an “our” of at least three persons, including the party addressed), dual *aldangwa “our tree = thy and my tree”. – An independent word for plural exclusive “our” appears in VT43:19, 35: menya (also menyë modifying a plural noun). The corresponding plural inclusive form should apparently be *venya (pl. *venyë) for archaic *wenya (pl. wenyai > wenyë). The dual forms would most likely be *mentya (excl.) and *ventya (incl.); compare me, we/ve as the independent pronouns for “we” (with dual forms met, wet/*vet and dative forms *ment, * went/vent, from which the independent possessive pronouns are apparently derived by adding the adjectival ending –ya). – Notice that in an earlier conceptual phase, the forms inmm– were plural (not as later dual) inclusive, and the forms inlm– were plural inclusive rather than exclusive. This is why the word translated “of our meeting” appeared as omentielmo in the first edition of LotR, but was changed to omentielvo in the Second Edition. Cf. also Átaremma “our Father” as the first word of Tolkien’s translation of the Lord’s Prayer (VT43:12); this “our” is obviously meant to be plural exclusive rather than dual as it later became (according to Tolkien’s later conventions, “our Father” would be *Átarelma when a group of three or more persons addresses a party not included in “our”, in this case the Father himself).

OURSELVES (reflexive pronoun) immë (apparently exclusive “ourselves”), inwë (apparently inclusive “ourselves”) –VT47:37

  OUT et- (prefix)(forth), OUT OF et (followed by ablative); HE IS OUT arsë –ET, LotR:1003/VT45:13/VT47:35, VT49:23

  OUTCAST hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outlaw) –WJ:365

  OUTER, OUTERMOST erúmëaLT1:262

  OUTER LANDS Entar, Entarda (Middle-earth, East, Thither Lands [as seen from Valinor]), ettelë (the word is not capitalized and seems to be sg) (foreign parts); OUTER OCEAN Vai (= Ekkaia?) –ET, LT1:271

  OUTLAW hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast) –WJ:365

OUTSIDE (prepositions:) ara (beside), ava (beyond), (nouns:) ettë, etsë; (prefix:) ar- (e.g. Araman “outside Aman”)AR2; AWA, ET, Silm:428, VT45:13

OVEN urnaLT1:271

  OVER or. With reference to movement over something (hence in effect *“across”), Tolkien considered the form olla “over” (= beyond, of things passed over, as in “I went over a river” or “they went over the hill”) –PE17:65

For “over” in the sense past, see PAST AND OVER. –UT:305

  OVERCAST lúrëa (dark) –LT1:259

  OVERSHADOW  telta- (canopy, screen)TEL

OW! horro, orro (alas! ugh) (“exclamation of horror, pain, disgust”) –VT45:17

  OX mundo (Note: a homophone means “snout, nose, cape”. It may or may not obsolete the form taracu “ox” in LT2.) See also BULL. –Letters:422, LT2:347/GL:69

  OXFORD LT2 gives Taruktarna (read *Taruhtarna in LotR-style Quenya), but the word may not be conceptually valid in LotR-style Quenya. See OX above. –LT2:347

   

  <P>

PACE ranga (pl rangar is stated to mean “full paces”). The ranga was a Númenórean linear measure of approximately 38 inches (96.5 cm); see YARD. –UT:285

PAGAN GOD see GOD

  PAIN (vb) nwalya-(torment). (Though spelt this way also in Etym, nwalya- must be from older *ngwalya, for the stem is ÑGWAL. In Tengwar spelling, the letter nwalmë (< older ngwalmë) should be used to transcribe the initial nw of nwalya.) PAIN, HURT (vb.) mala-. PAIN (noun) nwalma, naicelë, naicë (= sharp pain); PAINFUL naicelëaÑGWAL, VT46:4, QL:63, NÁYAK

PAIR OF FIVES, see GROUP OF TEN. MARRIED PAIR, see HUSBAND.

PALACE túrion (túriond-) –QL:95

  PALATAL SERIES tyelpetémaLotR:1154

PALE marya (fallow, fawn), malwa (fallow), isca. PALE BLUE helwa –MAD, SMAL, LT1:256, 3EL

  PALLID ninquë (stem *ninqui-) (chill, white) –WJ:417 cf. NIK-W-

PALM: The word palta is defined as “the flat of the hand, the hand held upwards or forwards, flat and tensed (with fingers and thumb closed or spread)”. The related verb palta– is explained to mean “pass the sensitive palm over a surface: feel with the hand, stroke etc.” –VT47:8-9

  PANSY helin,Helinyetillë (“Eyes of heartsease”) (violet) –LT1:262

PAPER hyalin –PE16:133

PARCHED fauca (openmouthed, thirsty) –PHAU

  PARCHMENT in LT2:346, parma “book” is glossed “parchment”, but see BARK.

  PARENT  #nostar (only pl nostari is attested); also ontar with gender-specific forms ontaro (m), ontarë or ontari (f) (begetter). The plural form “ontani” in LR:379 is according to VT46:7 a misreading for ontaru, evidently a dual form denoting a natural pair of parents. –LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308, ONO, VT44:7, VT46:7

PART (noun) #ranta (pl. rantali attested), asta (division, especially one of other equal parts; asta is often used = “month” as a division of the year). FOREIGN PARTS ettelë (outer lands) –PE14:117, ET, VT45:12, VT48:11

  PASS (vb.) auta- (leave, go away); pa.t. oantë, oantië (in the physical sense “went away [to another place]”, vánë (“the most frequently used past [tense]” – less “physical” than oantë, meaning *”disappeared” rather than “passed away”), also anwë (this pa.t. was “only found in archaic language”), perf. avánië (pl. avánier is attested); perf. vánië with no augment may occur in verse. –WJ:366; for the gloss “pass” see Silm:229

PASS OVER lahta– (cross, surpass, excel), langa– (cross, go over) –PE17:92, 65

  PASS – mountain pass: falqua (cleft, ravine); pass between hills: cilya (cleft, gorge) (so in Etym, but #cirya in the name Calacirya “Pass of Light” [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] – though this clashes with cirya “ship”. An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5) –LT2:341, KIL

  PASSAGE tarna (crossing, #ford) –LT2:347

  PAST, PAST AND OVER (adj) vanwa (departed, lost, vanished, dead, no longer to be had), PAST (noun = past time) vanwië –WAN, Nam

PASTURE, PASTURAGE nesselë (QL:66)

  PATH tië (course, line, direction, way, road); #vanda (isolated from Qualvanda “Road of Death” in LT1:264; cf. vand- “way, path” on the same page); NARROW PATH axa (ravine);

-TE3/RGEO:67/UT:22 cf. 51, LT1:264, AK

PATRONAGE #ortírië (attested with endings: ortírielyanna, “to thy patronage”) –VT45:7

  PAUSE lár (also a Númenórean linear measure, nearly one league – see LEAGUE.) –UT:285

PAVED FLOOR paca (court) –TAL, GL:63

PAY, see REPAY

  PEACE sérë (repose, rest), rainë (possibly rather “peace” or harmony as opposed to war), sívë; AT PEACE senda (resting) –SED, VT44:35

  PEAK aicalë; MOUNTAIN PEAK aicassë, also #rassë or #ras (isolated from Arfanyarassë, Arfanyaras “high white-shining peak”).AYAK, WJ:416

  PEARL marillaLT1:265

  PEBBLE-BANK sarnië (shingle) –UT:463 

  PEER tihta- (blink) –MC:223

  PEN (writing utensil) tecilTEK, PM:318, VT47:8

PEN IN – see GO ROUND (under entry for GO) regarding the verb pel

PENALTY – exact or inflict penalty, see PUNISH

PENGOLODH Quendingoldo, Quengoldo –PM:401, 404-405, VT48:5

  PEOPLE lië, nossë (kin, house). Originally nórë meant “people”, but in later [MET] Quenya it means primarily “land”. SOME PEOPLE queniLI, VT39:6, LT1:250/LT2:338, WJ:361 cf. 360

PERCEPTION, KEENNESS OF laicë (acuteness) The conceptual validity of this word is questionable; see PIERCING. –LAIK

  PEREDHIL Pereldar (the Half-Elven) –Letters:386, cf. LotR:1071 

  PERFORMATION assa (hole, opening, mouth) –GAS

PERHAPS cenasit, cenasta (VT49:19). See MAYBE.

  PERIOD (endless period) oioUT:317

  PERPETUAL #oien (isolated from oiencarmë “perpetual production” – but it has also been suggested that this is oiencarmë *”ever-re-making”, so the word #oien is rather doubtful) –MR:329

  PERSON quén (stem quen-, as in pl. queni)(one, somebody), nassë (an individual), PERSON AS A WHOLE (body + soul) essë (basically meaning “name”), erdë (“singularity”. Note: a homophone means “seed, germ”.) –WJ:361 cf. 360, VT49:30, MR:216

PETITION #arcandë (isolated from arcandemmar “our petitions”) Another form, #anarcandë, was apparently abandoned by Tolkien. –VT44:8

  PETTY #pitya (isolated from Pitya-naucor “petty-dwarves”, see below).

  PETTY-DWARVES Attalyar (lit. “Bipeds”), Picinaucor, Pitya-naucor (lit. *”small dwarves”) –WJ:388, 389

  PHANTOM fairë (“phantom, disembodied spirit, when seen as a pale shape” pl. fairi is attested. Note: fairë has other shades of meaning as well as wholly different meanings – see SPIRIT, DEATH, RADIANCE, FREEDOM) –MC:223, 221

PHARAZÔN Calion (see AR-PHARAZÔN) –UT:224, Silm:324

  PHONETIC hlonitë, also #hlonítë (the latter only attested in the pl. in hloníti tengwi “phonetic signs”, changed by Tolkien from hlonaiti tengwi) –VT48:29, WJ:395, VT39:4

PHONOLOGY lambelë is said to mean “Language (especially with reference to phonology)” (VT39:15)

  PHYSICAL MATTER orma, hroa (also used = “body”); PHYSICAL STRENGTH tuoMR:218, 216, TUG

PICK (UP, OUT) WITH THE FINGERS lepta– (also “[to] finger, feel with fingertips”) –VT44:16, VT47:10, 25

PICTURE emma –PE17:179

PIECE mitta (Note: mitta– is also a verb “insert”). PIECE OF SHAPED WOOD pano (Note: a homophone means “plan, arrangement”), –PE14:81, PAN

  PIERCING maica (sharp), terevë (fine, acute), laica (keen, sharp, acute). (The printed Etymologies has a final –e instead of –a, but according to VT45:25 this is a misreading. A word laike = laicë does appear in the source, but this is the noun corresponding to laica: “acuteness, keenness of perception”. The conceptual validity of both laica and laicë with these meanings may however be questioned, since laica is the adjective “green” in later sources: laicë would then be expected to mean *”greenness”.) FINE PIERCED HOLE terra –Silm:434, LT1:255, LT2:337, LAIK, VT46:18

PIG polca; [?PIG-]FAT (the first part of the gloss is not certainly legible) larma (flesh). Note: #larma is used = “raiment” in a later source. –QL:75, VT45:26

  PILE (noun) hahta (mound) –KHAG

  PILLAR tarma, tulwë (standard, pole)Silm:438, LT1:270

  PILLOW quesset (probably with stem *quessec– since the “Noldorin”/Sindarin cognate is given as pesseg, pointing to older *kwessek-). –KWES

  PIN tancil (brooch) –TAK

  PINETREE GL:17 has aicassë, but in Etym this word is said to mean “mountain-peak”.

  PINNACLE (topmost) see FINISH.

  PIPE simpa, simpina (flute), rotsë. PIPER simpetar, PIPING simpisëLT1:266, LT2:347

  PIT latta (hole – Note: a homophone means “strap”) –DAT

  PIVOT peltas (pl peltaxi) –PEL

  PLACE #nómë (isolated from nómesseron, compound “of place-names”, VT42:17). In Etym the word for “place” is men, though this word would clash with the dative pronoun *men “to/for us”; #nómë may be preferred not only for clarity but also because it is apparently present in the LotR itself in the word sinomë “in this place” (Elendil’s Oath);nomë would be the compound form of nómë. It also occurs in tanomë “in the place (referred to)”. STONY PLACE sarnë (gloss misread as “strong place” in the Etymologies as printed in LR, see VT46:12). AT BACK OF PLACE, see BEHIND. Verb WISH TO GO TO A PLACE mína– (desire to go in some direction, make for it, have some end in view) –VT42:17, MEN, LotR:1003, SD:56, VT49:11, SAR, VT39:11

PLAN pano (arrangement). Note: the word also means “piece of shaped wood”. –QL:72

 *PLANT #olva (only pl olvar is attested, never actually translated “plants” but defined as “growing things with roots in the earth”); LONG TRAILING PLANTuilë (“especially sea-weed”, which is explicitly ëaruilë)Silm:415, UY

  PLAY (vb) tyalin(“I play”, 1st pers. aorist), PLAY (noun) tyalië (game, sport) –TYAL/LT1:260

  PLEDGE vanda (oath, solemn promise) –UT:317

  PLENITUDE fárë, farmë (all that is wanted, sufficiency) –PHAR/VT46:9

  PLIANT maxa (soft) –MASAG

  PLOUGH hyar; THE PLOUGH (constellation) see SICKLE OF THE VALAR.LT2:342

  PLUM pio (also used for “cherry”) –LT2:347

  POEM lairë (Note: a homophone means “summer”), lirit –GLIR, LT1:258

POINT (verb): The phrase tentanë numenna, translated “pointed westward”, would indicate that the verb glossed DIRECT TOWARD (q.v.) can also be translated “point”. Tentanes formenna “it pointed northwards” –VT49:23, 26

  POINT (noun) mentë (end), tixë (dot, tiny mark), tildë (horn), variant tillë (tip) (also used of fingers and toes, VT47:10, 26; see UP-POINT, UNDER-POINT), amatixë (point/dot over the line of writing, variant amatexë in VT46:20), unutixë (point/dot under the line of writing; the initial element unu– was misread as “nun-” in the Etymologies as printed in LR, see VT46:19). SPEAR-POINT nasta (spear-head, gore, triangle). –MET, TIK/VT46:19, TIL/VT47:10, 26, SNAS/VT46:14

  POISON (noun) sangwaSAG

POLE tulwë (standard)LT1:270

POLISHED COPPER calarus (calarust-) –VT41:10

  POLLEN malo (stem *malu-) (yellow powder) Note: a homophone means “moth”. –SMAL

  POOL nendë, linya, ailin (lake), ringwë (cold lake). In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the last word is cited as “ringe”, but according to VT46:11, ringwë is the proper reading. DEEP POOL lón, lónë (pl. lóni given) (river-[?feeding] well), POOL OF LILIES nénuvarNEN, LIN, AY, RINGI, VT48:28, LT1:248

  POPLAR-TREE tyulussë; HAVING MANY POPLARS lintyulussëaTYUL, LIN

  POPPY fúmella (pl. fumellar [read *fúmellar?] is attested), fúmellot (prob. fúmellót-; cf. lótë “flower”) –LT1:252

PORTION, cf. DISTRIBUTE IN EVEN PORTIONS

POSSESS harya-; POSSESSING arwa (+ genitive) (in control of) (Note: harya- is not used of one’s offspring. In MR:228, Tolkien notes that “no Elf would speak of possessing children; he would say: ‘three children have been added unto me’, or ‘are with me’, or ‘are in my house’.”) –3AR

POST (wooden post) samna (Þ) (Distinct from #samna “diphthong” in Tengwar spelling, as the latter is spelt with initial silmë, not súlë.) –STAB

  POTTER cemnaro, centanoKEM, TAN

POUR ulya- (intransitive pa. t. ullë, transitive ulyanë; plural subjunctive ullier “should pour” is attested. These forms may obsolete ulu- and ulto- “pour” [transitive and intransitive] in LT1:270); POURING úlëa (flooding, flowing) –ULU, SD:310

POUT penga(VT39:11)

  POWDER (yellow powder) malo (stem *malu-) (pollen) Note: a homophone means “moth”. –SMAL

POWER: For “power” as an abstract, the word túrë “mastery, strength, might” may be used. The word Valar is sometimes translated “the Powers” (and the sg. vala is defined as “angelic power” in LotR Appendix E), but this word obviously has a specialized meaning: the “gods” of Tolkien’s legendarium.

  PRAISE (vb) laita- (bless) (Imperative a laita and fut #laituva are attested, the latter with pronominal endings: laituvalmet, “we shall praise them”) PRAISE (noun) #laitalë (isolated from Erulaitalë “Praise of Eru”)LotR:989 cf Letters:308, UT:436

PRAY #hyam– (attested in the form hyamë, evidently incorporating the endingë of the aorist stem), arca– (the latter perhaps primarily in the sense “to petition”, cf. the noun arcandë “petition”). –VT43:32, 33 (VT44:8, 18)

  PRAYER #cyermë (isolated from Erucyermë, “prayer to Eru”. A verbal stem #cyer– “pray” can also be isolated, though it may be better to use attested verbs like #hyam– or arca-.) –UT:436

  PRECIOUS mirwa (valuable); PRECIOUS THING mírë (jewel, treasure, shining jewel) –PE17:37, MIR

  PRECIPICE (seaward) ollo (cliff) (The alternative form oldó may be archaic Quenya.) –LT1:252
PREPARE manwa –QL:59

PRESS (vb.) nir– (thrust, force [in a given direction]). (“Though applicable to the pressure of a person on others, by mind and ‘will’ as well as by physical strength, [this verb] could also be used of physical pressures exerted by inanimates.”) Given as a 1st person aorist nirin. Pa.t. probably *nindë since the R of nir– was originally D (the base is given as NID; compare rer– pa.t. rendë from RED concerning the past tense; see SOW). –VT41:17

  PRESS (noun) sanga (crowd, throng) –STAG/Silm:438

PRESSURE (to do something against one’s will or conscience) sahtië (Þ) (force) –VT43:22

PRETTY netya (dainty). (Note: netya– is also a verb “trim, adorn”.) –VT47:33

  PREVENT FROM COMING TO COMPLETION nuhta- (stunt, stop short, not allow to continue) –WJ:413

  PRICK erca-, nasta- (sting); PRICKLE, SPINE ercaERÉK, NAS

 ?PRIMARY (Tolkien’s handwriting was illegible) *yessëa (emended from the actual reading essea – see BEGINNING) –ESE

  PRINCE †cundu, haryon (heir); PRINCESS aranelKUNDŪ/VT45:24, 3AR, UT:434

PRINCIPAL (prob. adj not noun) héra (chief) –KHER

PRIVACY aquapahtië (literally *”fully-closedness”, used of a mind that closes itself against telepathic communication) –VT39:23

  PROCEED (in any direction) lelya– (pa.t. lendë) (go, travel). TO PROCEED (conjunction, = “furthermore”), see FURTHERMORE. –WJ:363

  PRODUCTION carmë (glossed “art” in UT:396, but cf. Oiencarmë Eruo “the One’s perpetual production”. Carmë is also translated “making”.) –MR:329

PROFOUND tumna (low-lying, low, deep, dark or hidden) –LT1:271 cf. TUB

PROJECTIONS (seaward projections), see CAPE (OF LAND)

  PROLONG taita-TAY

  PROMINENT minda (conspicuous), minya(eminent; basically ordinal “1st”) –MINI, VT42:24, 25

  PROMISE (noun) (solemn promise:) vanda (oath, pledge) –UT:317

  PROMONTORY (narrow) nehtë (gore, wedge, spear-head. Note: a homophone means “honeycomb”.)THE ENDS OF PROMONTORIES, see CAPE (OF LAND). –UT:282

  PROP tulco (stem *tulcu-, pl. *tulqui) (support) –TULUK

  PROPER vanima (fair, beautiful, right) –LT1:272

  PROSPEROUS alya (rich, abundant, blessed); PROSPERITY autë (wealth, also adj: rich) –GALA, LT2:336

  PROTECT varya-;PROTECTED varna (safe, secure) –BAR

PROTUBERANCE CONTRIVED TO SERVE A PURPOSE tolma (knob, short rounded handle etc.) –VT47:28

  PROVERBIAL DICTUM (“a saying, a current or proverbial dictum”) eques (pl. equessi) (dictum, quotation, saying) –WJ:392

  PROW OF A SHIP lango (broad sword) –LAG

  P-SERIES parmatéma (labials) –LotR:1154

  PUFF hwesta-;PUFFOF AIR hwesta (breath, breeze), PUFF OF BREATH foa (breath) –SWES, VT47:35, 36

PULL saca– (Þ) (draw). Since saca– may also mean “look for”, for clarity it may be better to use #tuc– “draw”, q.v. –VT43:23

PUNISH paimeta– (= “exact or inflict a penalty; punish”), pa.t. perhaps *paimetánë; PUNISHMENT paimë –QL:72

PURE poicaPOY

PURIFICATION sovallë (washing, bathing) –QL:86

  PURSUE roita-, also saca– (search, look for), p.a.t sácëROY1, QL:81

    PUT ASIDE hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (leave out, exclude, abandon, forsake); PUT A STOP TO pusta- (stop, cease) –WJ:365, PUS

PUT FORTH LEAVES OR FLOWERS *lohta- (emended from the actual reading lokta because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) (sprout) –LT:258

PUT TO SHAME naitya– (abuse) –QL:65

PUT TO THE TEST tyasta-, pa.t. tyasantë –QL:49

  PUTRID saura (Þ)(foul, evil-smelling); in compounds #sauri-, see FOUL. –THUS

 

  <Q>

QUANTITY (great) úvë (abundance) –UB

  QUARREL (vb) costa-KOT

  QUEEN tári (gen. tário and dative tárin are also attested, the latter in the Elaine inscription). Vocative tarinya *”my Queen”, UT:179. LT1:260 gives turinqui “queen”, while LT1:273 gives vardi, but these are hardly valid words in LotR-style Quenya. QUEEN OF STARS (Varda’s title) Elentári (so in LotR and Silm; Etym has also Tinwetári, Tinwetar, Tinwerontar); QUEEN OF THE EARTH Kementári (a title of Yavanna) –TĀ/LT1:264/Nam/RGEO:67, Silm:55/437/30

  QUICK STROKE rincë (stem rinci-) (flourish) –RIK

  QUIET (noun) quildë (rest, hush) –GL:23

  QUIVER vainolëLT1:271

  QUOTATION eques (pl. equessi) (dictum, proverbial dictum, saying) –WJ:392

 

  <R>

  RACE nórë (land, country, dwelling-place, nation, native land, family) –NŌ

  RADAGAST Aiwendil (“Lover of Birds”, his original Valinorean name, not an actual translation of “Radagast”, which is either Adûnaic for “Tender of Beasts” or a Mannish name of uncertain meaning) –UT:393/417, cf. 390, 401

  RADIANCE alcar, alcarë (brilliance, splendour), incalë (compare Ancalë or “Radiant One” as a name of the Sun, LR:392 s.v. KAL, though it is not clear whether or not Tolkien abandoned this word), fairë (Note: the word fairë has several other meanings – see DEATH, FREEDOM, PHANTOM), nalta (glittering reflection [from jewels, glass, polished metals, or water] alata in Silm:433 is the Telerin form, and alta in VT42:32 would seem to be a variant. In PM:347, nalta is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and we follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) RADIANT alcarinqua(glorious) –AKLA-R, VT45:36, PHAY, PM:347, WJ:369 (where alkar is translated “splendour”)

  RAGE ahaLotR:1157

RAIMENT #larma (attested in pl. form larmar). Note: a homophone means “[?pig]-fat”. –PE17:175

  RAIN mistë (fine rain), rossë (fine rain, dew, spray), ucco; RAINBOW helyanwë (lit. “sky-bridge”), Ilweran, Ilweranta. (LT2 has iluquinga “sky-bow”, but this was obsoleted together with ilu “sky”; see SKY.) –MIZD, ROS cf. Letters:282, GL:74, 3EL, LT1:256, LT2:348

  RAISE orta-(lift up, rise) (pa.t. ortanë is attested; orta- probably obsoletes orto- in LT1:256), in early “Qenya” also amu- –ORO, Nam, RGEO:67, LT2:335

RAPE (vb) mapta– (pa.t. mapantë) (ravish); noun RAPE maptalë (ravishment, seizure). –PE13:163

  RAPID larca, alarcaLAK

  RAT nyarro (“nyano” in LR:379 must be a misreading of Tolkien’s manuscript; the primitive form is given as nyadrō, which could not possibly become “nyano” in Quenya). –NYAD, VT46:7

  RAVINE axa (narrow path), yáwë (cleft, gulf/gully), falqua (cleft, mountain pass) –AK, YAG/VT46:22, LT2:341

RAVISH mapta– (pa.t. mapantë) (rape); noun RAVISHMENT maptalë (rape, seizure). –PE13:163

  RAY OF LIGHT alca; RAY OF THE SUN firin (the latter may not be a valid word in LotR-style Quenya; it would clash with the verb “I fade” or “I die”).AKLA-R, LT2:341

 “RAYMENT, VEILS” fana (pl fanar is attested. This word was used of the visible bodies in which the Valar presented themselves to incarnates.) –RGEO:74

  RE- (prefix) en- (as in entulessë “return” and envinyatar “renewer”, q.v. Also used on verbs: #enquat- “refill” [only fut. enquantuva is attested, see REFILL]. Before the consonants l, m, r, s, the prefix en- would be assimilated to *el-, *em-, *er-, and *es-, respectively. Very early [The Lost Tales] “Qenya” has an- instead of en- [see LT1:184].)

  REACH (intr.) *rahta- (strech out) (Emended from the actual reading rakta; Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) –LT1:335

REACT ahtar– or accar- (do back, requite, avenge) –PE17:166

READ tengwa– (verb denominated from tengwa “letter”), conjugated in many forms in source: aorist [teng]wa, present [teng]wëa, past [teng]wanë, perfect e[teng]wië; READING (verbal noun) tengwië (also attested with suffixes: tengwiesto “of your [dual] reading”). –VT49:47-48, 54

READY (adj.) manwa (for “to ready” as a noun, cf. the verb manwa– “to prepare”) –QL:59

  REAL anwa (actual, true) –ANA2

  REALM arda (region). This word means “any more or less bounded or defined place, a region” (WJ:402) or “a particular land or region” (WJ:413). Arda (with a capital A) was “the name given to our world or earth…within the immensity of Eä”. –3AR, Letters:283

REAR (noun) tellë, (body-part:) pontë (ponti-) (back) –TELES, QL:75

REASON, see CAUSE

  RECALL (i.e. remember) #enyal– (inf. or gerund enyalië) –UT:302, 317

  RECKON not-; *RECKONING #onótië (isolated from Yénonótië *”reckoning of years”), *RECKONER Onótimo (the untranslated title of one Quennar, an expert of chronology) –NOT, MR:48-51

RECEIVE #cam– (attested in the past tense #camnë with pronominal endings added: camnelyes “you received it”). Early material also has tuvu– (same as in utúvienyes “I have found it”? See FIND) –VT47:21, GL:71

  RED carnë (stem carni-), aira (“ruddy, copper-coloured”), *narwa (“fiery red”, cited in the archaic form narwā in the source. Cf. nárë “flame”), nasar (adopted from Valarin; used in Vanyarin Quenya only); RED [HEAT?] (Tolkien’s handwriting was illegible) yulmë (Note: a homophone means “drinking, carousal”.) RED FLAME rúnya, WITH ADORNMENT OF RED JEWELS carnimírië (a pl form? Sg *carnimírëa? Letters:224 has carne- instead of carni-.) –KARÁN/Silm:429, GAY, NAR, WJ:399, YUL, Silm:437, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224

REDEEMER #runando (isolated from Mardorunando, “Redeemer of the World”) –VT45:17

  REED liscë (sedge) –LT2:335 (GL:34 also gives feng-, but some ending would be required). It may be that at some stages of Tolkien’s conception, the word linquë was intended to mean *”grass, reed” (but elsewhere the same word is used as an adj. “wet” or as a noun “hyacinth”).

  REEK usquëUSUK

  REFILL #enquat- (only fut. enquantuva is attested, but cf. quat- “fill” in WJ:392). In another source the future tense appears as enquatuva. –Nam, VT21:6, 10; VT48:11

REFLECTION (glittering) nalta (radiance – alata in Silm:433 is the Telerin form. In PM:347, nalta is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) –PM:347

REFRESH ceuta– (renew) –VT48:7

  REFUSE váquet- (forbid, say no) (1st pers. sg aorist and past váquetin, váquenten are given) avaquet– (forbid) (pa.t. is no doubt *avaquentë; cf. quet- under SAY),ava- (say no). (Pa.t. avanë is given; this verb was “little used in ordinary language”. Other forms occur in VT49:13, all with the ending –n “I”: Aorist avan, present ávan or ávëan, future avuvan > auvan, past avanen or aunen, perfect avávien. In one version, the forms ávëan and avanen are marked as poetic or archaic.)  –WJ:370, KWET, VT49:13

REGARDS see AS REGARDS  s

  REGION ména, arda (realm), hardaMEN, LotR:1157, VT45:12

  REGULAR sanya (Þ)(law-abiding, normal) (variant vorosanya with a prefixed element meaning “ever”). –STAN, VT46:16

RECEIVE #cam– (attested in the pa.t. #camnë with pronominal affixes: camnelyes, “you received it”) –VT47:21

  RELATE #nyar(cited as nyarin, 1st pers. aorist) (tell); NOT TO BE TOLD OR RELATED avanyárima –NAR2, WJ:370

  RELEASE lerya– (set free, let go), fainu-, apsenë– (remit, forgive; see FORGIVE). RELEASED lehta (free); RELEASED ELEMENT (a term for “vowel”) #lehta tengwë (only pl. lehta tengwi is attested; we would rather expect *lehtë tengwi). –VT41:5, 6, LT2:250, VT43:18, 20, VT39:17

REMAIN lemya– (to tarry). Possibly this verb should have the past tense *lemnë rather than ?lemyanë, since intransitive verbs in –ya may seem to surrender this suffix in the past tense. REMAINS erin (evidently a verb; the endingn for 3rd person rather than 1st person would not be valid in later Quenya. A verbal stem #er– “remain” may perhaps be isolated, but the source is very early and writers should rather use lemya-.) –VT45:26, LT1:269

REMEMBER, see RECALL

REMIT apsenë– (release, forgive; see FORGIVE). –VT43:18, 20

  REMOTE haira (far), eccaira, avahaira, vaháya or avaháyaKHAYA, VT45:21

  REND narca- (in the Etymologies as published in LR, “narka” in Tolkien’s manuscript was misread as “narki”; see VT45:37), RENDING naraca (harsh, violent)(possibly “of sounds”, but Tolkien’s extra comment is partially illegible) –NÁRAK, VT45:37

  RENEW ceuta– (refresh), #envinyata- (heal) (isolated from Envinyatar, see below. Past participle Envinyanta is attested, though it is translated “healed” rather than *”renewed”.) RENEWED ceura (so in VT48:8; the form ceurë on the previous page looks dubious, except as the plural form of this adj.).*RENEWAL ceulë (the likeliest meaning of this unglossed form), RENEWER EnvinyatarMR:405, VT48:7, 8, LotR:897

REPAY paitya– (requite) –QL:72

  REPEAT tatya- (double); REPEATED vórima (changed by Tolkien from vorima) (continual), vórëa (enduring, continuous) –TATA, BOR, VT45:7

REPETITION continuous repetition: vorongandelë (“vorogandele” in the published Etymologies is a misreading; see VT45:7) (harping on one tune) –LIN1

  REPOSE Estë (the name of a Valië; because of this name, estë fell out of use as a general word for “repose”). According to VT46:12, Tolkien also considered erdë as a word for “repose”, but he marked it with an X, possibly indicating that he considered abandoning this word because it clashed with erdë “seed, germ”. Because of its uncertain status, writers should probably avoid erdë “repose”. –WJ:403, 404

REQUITE

REACT ahtar– or accar- (do back, requite, avenge), paitya– (repay) –PE17:166, QL:72

RESCUE (noun) rehtië (saving); this would seem to be the gerund of a verb *rehta– “rescue, save” (see SAVING for further discussion). –PE17:38

RESONANCE OF THE VOCAL CHORDS óma (voice) –VT39:16

  RESONANT (of strings) tunga (taut, tight) –TUG

RESPONSIBILITY cáma (guilt) –QL:43

  REST serin (“I rest”, 1st pers. aorist); REST (noun) sérë (repose, peace), quildë (quiet, hush); Estë (the name of a Valië; because of this name, estë fell out of use as a general word for “rest”) (repose); TAKE A REST hauta-; RESTING senda (at peace) –SED, EZDĒ/WJ:404, GL:23, KHAW

RESTRAIN avalerya– (bind, make fast, deprive of liberty) –VT41:5, 6

  RETURN (vb) pel- (revolve, go round), RETURN (noun) entulessë –PEL, UT:171, 434

REVEAL apanta– (pa.t. apantanë, apantë) (display); REVEALING (noun) pantië (opening, unfolding) –QL:34, 72

  REVERED: The element #ar- in Arfanyarassë (a name of Taniquetil) is said to mean “high (i.e., noble, revered)” –WJ:416

  REVERSED nuquerna (literally *”under-turned”)LotR:1157

  REVOLVE pel- (return, go round) –PEL

  RICH alya (prosperous, abundant, blessed), lárëa (also = fat, and probably the best word for “rich” in the strictly material sense), autë (also as noun: prosperity, wealth), herenya (wealthy, fortunate, blessed). RICHES lar (fat) –GALA/VT42:32, VT45:26, LT2:335, KHER, VT45:26

  RIDER roquen (horseman, knight) –WJ:372, UT:282

  RIGHT téra (straight), vanima (fair, proper, beautiful). RIGHT (direction) forya (dexter), fortë (stem *forti-) (Note: the latter word also means “northern”); RIGHTHANDED formaitë (stem *formaiti-) (dexterous), RIGHT HAND forma –TE3, LT1:272, PHOR/VT46:10, VT47:6

  RIME ringwë (frost) –LT1:255

  RING #corma (isolated from cormacolindor “Ring-bearers”). The title “Lord of the Rings” Tolkien translated as Heru i Million, with #milli as the word for “rings” (singular *millë or less likely *mil with stem *mill-). The word *risil (quoted in archaic form rithil) appears in Rithil-Anamo or “Ring of Doom”, the place where judgement was passed in Valinor; this would therefore be a “ring” on the ground.  RING-DAY Cormarë (Yavannië 30th, a festival in honour of Frodo Baggins; this was his birthday). RING-WRAITHS Úlairi (Nazgûl) (pl; sg #Úlairë? Note that Úlairi is not a literal translation of “ring-wraiths”; the prefix ú– may mean “un-” with evil connotation; the rest of the word is obscure. Lairë “summer” or “poem” can hardly have anything to do with #lairi. The syllable úl– may also have something to do with the Black Speech word gûl, wraith, or else the meaning may be “unliving (= undead) ones”, with the root LAY that is normally associated with greenness but also with life: *ú-lai-ri “un-live-ly ones”) –LotR:989 cf. Letters:308, LotR.1146, WJ:401, Silm:362, 417

  RINGING SOUND láma (echo – so in Etym, but see SOUND) –LAM

  RISE orta- (pa.t. ortanë is attested; orta- obsoletes oro- in LT1:256) (lift up, raise); RISING (noun) órë (Note: a homophone means “heart, inner mind”; but cf. MIGHTY-RISING); SUNRISE anarórë (LT1:264 has orontë, oronto, but these words may not be valid in LotR-style Quenya). –ORO, LT1:256, Nam/RGEO:67

  RIVER sírë(stream), also #sirya (attested in dual form siryat). (LT1:248/262 also gives nen, while LT1:260 gives celusindi; LT1:265 gives sindi; these may not be valid words in LotR-style Quenya.) The word hlóna (marked by a query by Tolkien) was to designate “a river, especially given to those at all seasons full of water from mountains”. Regarding the conceptual validity of the word nuinë,duinë (cognate of Sindarin duin as in Anduin), see nuinë in the Quenya-English wordlist. RIVER-[?FEEDING] WELL (Tolkien’s gloss is not certainly legible) lón, lónë (pl. lóni given) (deep pool). RIVULET siril; MOUTH OF RIVER etsirSIR, VT47:11, VT48:27, 28, 30-31, ET

ROAD tëa (straight line) (note: not to be confused with the verb tëa– “indicate”), ROAD IN SEA londë (entrance to harbour, translated “haven” in Alqualondë Haven of the Swans, UT:417; the additional gloss “fairway” turned up in VT45:28), tië (path, course, direction, way), #vanda (isolated form Qualvanda “Road of Death” in LT1:264; cf. vand- “way, path” on the same page) –TEÑ, LOD/VT45:28, TE3/RGEO:67, LT1:264

  ROARING (adj.) rávëa; ROARING NOISE rávë –MC:223 cf. 215

ROBBER pilu (thief) –QL:73

ROBBERY pilwë (theft) –QL:73

  ROBE vaima (wrap) –LT1:271

ROCKHEWN HALL hróta (dwelling underground, artificial cave) –PM:365

ROLL UP tolu –QL.94

  ROOF (vb) tópa-;ROOF (noun) tópa; HAVING A ROOF telda; “DOWN-ROOF” (cover) untúpaTOP, LT2:348, RGEO:67/Nam

  ROOM sambë (Þ)(chamber) –STAB

ROOMY yonda (wide, extensive) –PE17:43

  ROOT, ROOTWORD sundo (Þ)  (pl #sundar in Tarmasundar “Roots of the Pillar” in UT:166, but this may be a different word) (base), talma (foundation), sulca (esp. edible root) –SUD (but VT46:16 indicates that Tolkien changed the root to STUD, also implying that sundo was originally Þundo), TAL, SÚLUK

  ROUND corna (globed), corima; ISOLATED ROUND HILL tolmen (boss of shield), GO ROUND pel- (return, revolve) ROUNDED HANDLE, see HANDLE. –KOR, LT1:257, 269, PEL

  ROW téma (series, line) (pl témar is attested) –TEÑ, LotR:1153

  ROYAL #arna (isolated from Arnanor, Arnanórë, “royal land”, Arnor); ROYALIST arandil (king’s friend) –Letters:428, 386  

  RUDDY aira (red, copper-coloured), roinaGAY, ROY

  RUINOUS atalantëa (pl. atalantië is attested) –MC:222, 223

  RULE (vb)  heru- (Note: In Tolkien’s later Quenya, heru is primarily the noun “lord”, so the later verb tur– “govern” may be preferred to this early “Qenya” verb.). LT1:273 has vard- “rule, govern”, but this is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya. RULE (noun, “a rule”) sanyë (Þ)(law), axan (commandment, law, as proceeding primarily from Eru; pl. axani is attested.) –LT1:272, STAN, WJ:399/VT39:30

  RULER cáno, cánu (see COMMANDER) (governor, chieftain, commander), #tur (as in Minyatur, “first Ruler”) (lord) –UT:400, 466

RUN yur(quoted in form yurin, translated “runs”, but within Tolkien’s later framework it looks like a 1st person aorist “I run”),RUN ON, RUN SMOOTHLY nornoro-; adj. STRONG/SWIFT AT RUNNING nórima QL:106 (cf. entry YUR in Etym), LT1:263, VT49:29

  RUNE certa (pl certar is attested. This word only occurred in Exilic Quenya, adopted and adapted from Sindarin certh. Tolkien notes that if inherited, the form would have had the form *cirtë.) –WJ:396, LotR:1151

  RUSHING (adjectival) rimpa (flying), arauca (swift); RUSHING (noun) ormë (wrath, violence, haste) –KHOR, LT2:347, GOR    

  RUSTLE escë (noise of leaves) –EZGE

 

  <S>

  SAFE varna (protected, secure). (GL:58 has moina “safe, secure”, but in Tolkien’s later Quenya moina means “dear, familiar”, and the former moina now appears as muina “hidden, secret”.) SAFE KEEPING mando (custody) –BAR, MR:350

  SAGA nyárë, nyarna (tale, history) –NAR2

SAGACIOUS finwaLT1:253

SAIL #cir- (only attested as a continuative stem: círa). LT1:273 has wili- “sail, float, fly”, but see FLY. –MC:221

SAILOR ciryaquen (shipman) –WJ:372

  SAKALTHÔR FalassionUT:223

SALT (noun:) singë, (adj., “salty”): singwa –QL:83

SALVE lipsaLIB2

SAME imya (same, identical, selfsame); SAME THING imma (this is also the reflexive pronoun “itself”) SAME ONE, SELF immo (a general sg. reflexive pronoun, covering English “myself, him/herself, yourself”, but not “itself” which is imma) –VT47:37

  SANCTUARY yána (holy place) –YAN

  SAND litsëLIT

  SARUMAN Curumo (= Sindarin Curunír) –UT:393, 401, 427

  SATURN LumbarWJ:xi/Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55

SAURON (The Abhorred) Sauron (Þ), other names Súro, Sauro (all Þ) –THUS

SAVE: the apparent gerund rehtië, “saving” or “rescue”, seems to imply a verb *rehta– “save, rescue” (see SAVING). Also see DELIVER. –PE17:38

SAVING (noun) rehtië (rescue); this is seemingly the gerund of a verb *rehta– “rescue, save”; the underlying root REK is defined as “recover, get out/away, save from ruin/peril/loss”) –PE17:38

  SAY quet– (pa.t. quentë) (speak, talk), equë (the latter word “has no tense forms…being mostly used only before either a proper name…or a full independent pronoun, in the senses say / says or said. A quotation then follows, either direct, or less usually indirect after a ‘that’-construction (…) Affixes appear in equen ‘said I’, eques ‘said he / she’ .” (WJ:392, 415) Attested forms include the aorist quetë and its pl. form quetir (VT41:11, 49:11). Cf. also SAY NO váquet- (forbid, refuse) (1st pers. sg aorist and past váquetin, váquenten are given), ava- (refuse) (pa.t. avanë is given; this verb was “little used in ordinary language”. Other forms occur in VT49:13, all with the ending –n “I”: Aorist avan, present ávan or ávëan, future avuvan > auvan, past avanen or aunen, perfect avávien. In one version, the forms ávëan and avanen are marked as poetic or archaic.) NOT TO BE SAID, THAT MUST NOT BE SAID avaquétima. SAYING eques (pl. equessi) (dictum, proverbial dictum, quotation) –Silm:436, WJ:370, LT2:348, WJ:392

SCARLET: the word culda “flame-coloured, golden-red” is the cognate of “Noldorin”/Sindarin coll , which form was glossed “scarlet”, though this was deleted (KUL, VT45:24)

  SCHOLAR istyar (learned man) –IS

  SCOOP OUT calpa- (draw out, bale out) –KALPA

  SCORN yaiwë (mocking) –YAY

  SCREEN (vb) telta- (canopy, overshadow), SCREEN FROM LIGHT halya- (veil, conceal) –SKAL, TEL

  SEA ëar, airë (in Etym said to apply to “inner seas of Middle-earth”, but Tolkien later used these words of the ocean). LT2:347 also gives Rása “the Sea”. SEA-DWELLING Eämbar (name of a ship), SEA-SPIRIT falmar/falmarin (pl. falmarindi) (nymph), SEA-ELF Teler (Telellië, Telelli “Teler-folk”, adj Telerin “Telerian”), SEAWEED ëaruilë (also simply uilë, see PLANT), CHILD OF THE SEA oar (merchild), SEAWARD PRECIPICE ollo (cliff). (The alternative form oldó may be archaic Quenya.) –AYAR/Letters:386/RGEO:73, UT:430, LT2:347, TELES, LT1:263, LT1:252

SEARCH saca (pa.t. sácë) (pursue, look for) –QL:81

  SECOND (2nd) attëa, in older (MET) Quenya tatya (cf. Tatyar, “the Second Ones”, the Second Clan of the Elves), neuna; THE SECOND Atani (sg Atan – an Elvish name of Men, later only used of Men of the Three Houses of the Edain.) –WJ:420, VT42:25, NDEW, WJ:403

  SECRET (adj) muina (hidden), nulla, nulda, lomba; SECRET (noun) fólë (secrecy); SECRECY muilë, fólë (secret), SECRETIVE fólimaMUY, DUL, LT1:255, LT2:340

  SECURE varna (protected, safe), SECURITY varnassë. (GL:58 gives moina “safe, secure”, but in Tolkien’s later Quenya moina means “dear, familiar”, and the former moina seems to have been altered to muina “hidden, secret”.)BAR

  SEDGE liscë (reed) –LT2:335 

  SEE cen- (behold) (future tense cenuva and imperative cena are attested), véla- (the latter maybe primarily “see” = “meet”). Also see LOOK AT. Interjections: SEE! ela (lo! look!) (directing sight to an actually visible object) NOW SEE! (lo!) Note: a homophone means “what is more”. –MC:222, VT47:31, Arct, WJ:362 cf. 360, VT47:31

SEEMING – nácë is glossed “it is may be seeming” (sic). –VT49:28

  SEED erdë (germ. Note: a homophone means “person”.) –ERÉD

  SEIZE mapa- (grasp) This word was struck out in one of Tolkien’s earlier word-lists, but in Etym it was restored. In early material we have map– “seize, take” with pa.t. nampë. –MAP, LT2:339, QL:59

SEIZURE maptalë (rape, ravishment). –PE13:163

SELF immo (a general sg. reflexive pronoun, covering English “myself, him/herself, yourself”, but not “itself” which is imma) –VT47:37

  SELF-NAME #cilmessë (only pl. cilmessi is attested, said to mean more literally “names of personal choice”: #cilmë “choice” + essi “names”. PM:339 explains that “some among the exiles gave themselves names, as disguises or in reference to their own deeds and personal history: such names were called kilmessi ‘self-names’.”)

SELFSAME imya (same, identical) –VT47:37

SEMI-VOWEL the term #mussë tengwë “soft element” (only attested in the pl.: mussë tengwi) covers vowels, semi-vowels (y, w) and continuants (l, r, m, n). –VT39:17

SEND menta– (cause to go [in a desired direction]), also #lelta– (attested in the pa.t. with pronominal endings: leltanelyes, “you sent him”); SENDING (noun) menta (message); THOUGHT-SENDING sanwe-menta (mental message) –VT41:5, VT47:21

  SEND FLYING horta- (speed, urge) –KHOR

  SEND FOR tulta- (fetch, summon) –TUL

  SENTENCE quentelëLT2:348

  SEPTEMBER YavanniëLotR:1144/1146/Silm:439

  SERIES téma (pl. témar is attested) (row, line) –TEÑ, LotR:1153 

  SERPENT lócë (snake, dragon; “so do the Eldar name the worms of Melko[r]”, LT2:85). The word foalócë is said to be a “name of a serpent that guarded a treasure”. The word is not capitalized, so this “name” must be a common noun and not a proper name. –LOK, LT2:340

  SERVANT núro (in the Etymologies as published in LR, the gloss is misread as “sunset”; see VT45:38), also(n)dur (final element in compounds, e.g. arandur “king’s servant, minister, steward”. When the first part of the compound ends in l, n, or r, the n of –ndur is left out). –NDŪ, Letters:386

  SET panya- (fix), SET (of Sun or Moon) núta- (sink, stoop), SET FREE lerya– (release, let go), SET UP tulca- (fix, establish. Note: there is a homophone meaning “firm, steadfast, strong, immoveable”.) SET ASIDE #sat– (appropriate to a special purpose or owner). The verb #sat– is cited in the form “sati-“, evidently including the connecting vowel of the aorist, as in *satin “I set aside”. SET VIGOROUSLY OUT TO DO horya– (be compelled to do, have an impulse) –PAN, NDŪ, VT41:5, 6; LT1:270 cf. TULUK, VT42:20, VT45:22

  SETTLED – be settled: mar- (abide, be fixed) SETTLED CHARACTER indómë (“also used of the ‘will’ of Eru [God]”). –UT:317, VT43:16

  SEVEN otso (for the syntax of numerals, see THREE). SEVENTH otsëa. Fraction ONE SEVENTH otosta, osta, otsatOT, VT42:25, VT48:6, 11

SEVENTEEN otoquë. For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. –VT48:21

SEX, see COITUS

SEXUAL DESIRE is the apparent meaning of yérë, a word that is not really glossed, but derived from the root YER “feel sexual desire” (VT46:23). The word hroafelmë, “body-impulse” (VT41:19 cf. 13) is also said to cover sexual desire (but likewise physical fear, hunger, or thirst).

  SHADE lëo (= shadow cast by an object), laimë, lómin (shadow); SHADES OF NIGHT lómë (Night, night-time, dusk, gloom, twilight), SHADY halda (veiled, hidden, shadowed), laira –DAY, LT1:255, DO3

  SHADOW lëo ( =shadow cast by an object) (shade), also laimë (shadow “cast by an object or form”, VT45:8), lómin (shade), lumbulë (=[heavy] shadow), fuinë, huinë (= deep shadow) (gloom, darkness – according to VT41:8, fuinë is actually a Telerin form, the proper Quenya form being huinë), ungo (=dark shadow) (cloud), mordo (obscurity, stain, smear, dimness), lumbë (gloom). “The Shadow” meaning Sauron should probably be Huinë, as this word is associated with his coming to Númenor in LR:47 and SD:246/310. SHADOWED halda (veiled, hidden, shady). –DAY/VT45:8, LT1:255, Nam/RGEO:67, PHUY, UÑG, MOR/VT45:35, LUM, SKAL

  SHAGGY aulë (May have been obsoleted by the later [TLT] word aulë “invention”.) –LT1:249

SHAKE (vb.) pal-; pa.t. pallë given –PE16:143

  SHAKE (noun): In the Etymologies as printed in LR, rincë was glossed “quick shake”, but according to VT46:11 the proper reading of Tolkien’s manuscript is “quick stroke”. –RIK, VT46:11

SHAME (vb, “put to shame”) naitya– (abuse). An abstract formation based on this verb, e.g. *naityalë, could serve as the noun “shame”. –QL:65

  SHAPE (vb) canta-, venië (gerund? Stem #ven-?) (cut); SHAPE (noun) venwë (cut), SHAPED canta (also as quasi-suffix, e.g. lassecanta “leaf-shaped”); SHAPED STONE ambal (flag), PIECE OF SHAPED WOOD pano. Note: a homophone means “plan, arrangement”.  –KAT, LT1:254, MBAL, PAN

  SHARE hyanda (blade) –LT2:342

  SHARP maica (piercing), aica (fell, terrible, dire; this gloss “sharp” is isolated from one translation of Aicanáro🙂 SHARP-FLAME Aicanáro “Fell Fire, Aegnor” (so in Silm:435; MR:323 has Aicanár) In the printed Etymologies, a word for “keen, sharp, acute” is given as “laike” in the entry LAIK, but not only is this a misreading for “laika” (VT45:25): the conceptual validity of this word may be questioned because laika, laica is the word for “green” in later sources. –Silm:434, AYAK, MR:323, LAIK

  SHARP-PROWED SHIP cirya (see SHIP) –Silm:433 (where the spelling círya occurs, but all other sources have cirya with a short i, so círya is likely an error by Christopher Tolkien).

  SHATTERED rúcina (confused, disordered) –MC:223

SHE – see HE (the same forms are used for both genders)

  SHEATH vainëLT1:271

  SHEEN, THE Isil(Moon) –THIL

  SHEEP máma (Unlike English “sheep”, this word probably has a distinct plural *mámar.) SHEEPFOLD moalin (moalind-) –WJ:395, QL:60

  SHELL hyalma (conch, horn of Ulmo) –SYAL

  SHEPHERD mavor (GL:58 gives mavar); SHEPHERDESS emerwen. The word mámandil, etymologically “sheep-friend” (máma “sheep” +ndil “friend”), may perhaps also be used for “shepherd”.  –LT1:268, UT:434, UT:209

  SHIELD turma, umbas (Þ); BOSS OF SHIELD tolmen (isolated round hill)  –TURÚM, VT45:33, LT1:269

  SHIFT (of large and heavy things:) rúma- (part. rúmala is attested) (heave, move) –MC:223, 222

  SHINE cala- (fut. caluva is attested), calta-; SHINE WHITE sil- (present tense síla, aorist sg. silë, aorist pl. silir, freq. sisíla- are attested and dual future siluvat are attested), ninquita-; SHINING WHITE (adj) silma (silver) –LT1:254, UT:22 cf. 51, KAL, MC:223, VT49:45, NIK-W, SIL/LotR:94/The Return of the Shadow:324

  SHINGLE sarnië (pebble-bank) –UT:463 

  SHIP cirya (defined as “sharp-prowed ship” in Silm:433; dual ciriat [read *ciryat?] is attested in Letters:427; all numbers and cases except plural possessive *ciryaiva are attested in the Plotz letter. In Silm:433, the spelling círya occurs, but all other sources have cirya with a short i, so círya is likely an error by Christopher Tolkien); luntë (boat); SHIPMAN ciryaquen (sailor)KIR, LT1:249/LUT, WJ:318

SHIRT laupë (tunic) –QL:51

SHOE hyapat –SKYAP (Note: In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the word hyapat is glossed “shore”, but according to http://www.elvish.org/errata/VT-Errata.pdf, the proper reading of the gloss found in Tolkien’s manuscript is “shoe”.)

  SHORE falas (falass-), falassë (beach, line of surf, “especially one [i.e. a shore] exposed to great waves and breakers”, VT42:15), fára (beach). In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the word hyapat is glossed “shore”, but according to http://www.elvish.org/errata/VT-Errata.pdf, the proper reading of the gloss found in Tolkien’s manuscript is “shoe”. SHORE-PIPER, SHORELAND PIPER Solosimpë (pl Solosimpi is attested) –LT1:253, VT42:15, Silm:431, VT46:15, SKYAP, LT1:251, 265

  SHORT sinta (Þ); SHORT STABBING SWORD ecet (broad-bladed sword) SHORT ROUNDED HANDLE, see HANDLE. –STINTĀ, UT:284

  SHOULDER róma (Note: a homophone means “horn” or “trumpet-sound, loud sound”) See also BACK. –LT2:335

  SHOUT (vb) rama-; SHOUT (noun) rambë, SHOUT yello (call, cry of triumph), SHOUTER ramandor (but in LotR-style Quenya this would probably be a pl; sg *ramando) –LT1:259, GYEL, VT45:16

SHUT holta– (close) –PE17:98

  SHOW tana- (indicate) (Note: tana also means “that”, as a demonstrative.) –MR:385

  SICK, SICKLY laiwa (ill; this word may be better spelt *hlaiwa, see under ILL), caimassëa (bedridden), engwa (cf. Engwar “The Sickly”, an Elvish name for Men), quámëa (evidently = *”nauseous”), SICKNESS quámë (= nausea), in the sense of illness probably rather lívë (maybe better spelt *hlívë), caila (or possibly this is only adj. lying in bed, bedridden; see caila in the Quenya-English wordlist for further discussion), caimassë (etymologically “[state of being] in bed”) –SLIW, KAY/VT45:19, GENG-WĀ, Silm:122, KWAM

  SICKLE circa; SICKLE OF THE VALAR Valacirca (= the Great Bear, the Plough, the Big Dipper or the Wain), also called Otselen = The Seven Stars. –KIRIK, OT

 SIGH see EXPIRE. Cf. also one of Nienna’s titles: Núri, she who sighs. –LT1:263 cf. 66.

 SIGN tanna, tanwa, #taina; tengwë (indication, token, writing; tengwë is also used for what we should call a phoneme pl tengwi is attested), tehta (mark [in writing], diacritic) (In LotR:1155, this word is applied to the supralinear vowel-signs of Fëanorian writing, and pl tehtar is attested.) SYSTEM OR CODE OF SIGNS tengwesta (grammar). For various linguistic terms, see FULL SIGN, LACKING/INADEQUATE SIGN, STRIPPED/DEPRIVED SIGN.–PE17:186. MR:385, WJ:394, 395, TEK

  SIGNIFER Tancol (“the significant Star”, probably = Venus).

SILK samin (samind-); adj. SILKEN saminda, saminwa adj. “silken” (QL:81)

  SILVER telpë, telep- (tyelpë, tyelep-was the original form of the word in Noldorin Quenya, but “the form telpe became usual, through the influence of Telerin; for the Teleri prized silver above gold, and their skill as silversmiths was esteemed even by the Noldor” [UT:266]. However, in Letters:426 it is stated that “the form tyelpë remained in Quenya” and was not wholly displaced by telpë. LT1:268 has telpë = telempë.) Cf. also ilsa(a “mystic name” of silver),†silmë (also meaning light of Silpion, starlight). SILVER (prob. adj) tinda (glinting), OF SILVER telepsa, telpina, telemna. SILVER LIGHT istel, istil (“applied by the Ilkorins to starlight, probably a Q[uenya] form learned from Melian”). SILVER GLINT nillë (a star on Varda’s simulacrum covering Valinor. Spelt ñillë, i.e., ngillë, in MR:388, but initial ng had become n in Third Age pronunciation, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But is this word is written in Tengwar, the letter noldo, not númen, should be used to transcribe the initial n.) –Silm:429, KYELEP, LT1:255, SIL, TIN, MR:388

SIN (noun) #úcarë (isolated from úcaremmar “our sins/trespasses”; SIN (verb) #úcar– = “to sin, trespass” (pl. aorist úcarer, úcarir attested); SINNER #úcarindo (variant #ulcarindo, possibly an ephemeral form abandoned by Tolkien, which may also be true of the forms #naicando, #naico. All the words for “sinner” are attested with the pl. endingr attached.) –VT43:19, 21, 22, 33

SINCE (= because) pan. “Since” with reference to time (as in “they have been here since last year”) may perhaps be expressed as “from” or “after”, q.v. –VT49:17, 18

 SINEW tuo (muscle) –TUG

 SING #lir– as in lirin“I sing” (1st pers. aorist) (chant); SINGER nyello, lindo (singing bird); SINGERS Lindar (a name of the Teleri); SINGING lindë (air, tune, song), SINGING CLUSTER Lindeloktë (labernum). This is the form given in LT1:258; Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya. Read *Lindelohtë in LotR-style Quenya?  –GLIR, NYEL, LIN2, WJ:418, Silm:431, LT1:258

 SINGLE erya (sole), SINGLY eressë (only, alone, also as noun: solitude) –ERE, LT1:269

 SINGULARITY erdë (used in the sense “person as a whole”, body and soul. Note: a homophone means “seed, germ”.) –MR:216

SINISTER úmara –VT49:14, 15

 SINK (of Sun and Moon) núta- (set) –NDŪ

 SIP salpa- (lick up, sup) –SÁLAP

 SIRIUS Niellúnë, NierninwaLT1:262

 SISTER nésa (þ; older form néþa cited), colloquially also nettë (probably netti-); the latter word was also used in children’s play for “fourth finger” or “fourth toe” (or in two-handed play for the ninth digit). Different words for “sister” occur in the Etymologies: seler (Þ)(pl. selli), onómë, onónë; SISTER (usually not of bloodkinship) osellë (Þ)(associate) –VT47:10-12, 14, THEL, NŌ

 SIT har(in CO attested in the plural continuative tense: hárar “are sitting”. According to VT45:20, Tolkien derived har– “sit” from a root KHAD; if so, the past tense of har– should probably be *handë rather than *harnë. In Etym, the root KHAD was rejected and replaced by KHAM-, and the new Quenya verb for “sit” thus came to be ham-. However, since har– reappears in such a late text as CO, Tolkien may have decided to reinstate KHAD and its derivatives; writers may then treat both har– and ham– as valid verbs for “to sit”.)KHAM, UT:317, VT45:20

 SIX enquë (for archaic, possibly pre-historic, encë, VT48:8). For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. SIXTH enquëa. Fraction ONE SIXTH enquesta –ÉNEK, VT42:25, VT48:6, 11

SIXTEEN enenquë –VT48:21 (the form quainquë seems to be another, possibly experimental, word for “16” in Quenya). For the syntax of numerals, see THREE.

 SKIES fanyarë (upper airs and clouds) –MC:223

 SKILL curu; SKILLED maitë (stem *maiti-, pl. maisi) (handy), BE SKILLED IN DEALING WITH hanya- (understand, know about); SKILLFUL [?DEVICE Tolkien’s handwriting was illegible] curo (curu-)  –Silm:429, MA3, KHAN, VT41:10

 SKIN helma (fell) (parma in LT2:346 is obsolete; see BARK) –SKEL

SKY vilya (older [MET] wilya) (air),hellë, ilwë (heavens), telimbo (canopy), taimë, taimië. (LT2:348 gives ilu, but the meaning of this word was later changed – Tolkien decided that Ilúvatar means “All-Father”, not “Sky-Father” as he originally thought.) “SKY-BRIDGE” (i.e., rainbow) helyanwëLotR:1157, 3EL, LT1:255, LT2:348, LT1:268

 SLACKEN lehta-, lenca- (loose)(In the printed Etymologies, the n of lenca– was misread as u; see VT45:27.) –LEK

 SLASH cirissë (gash) –KIRIS

 SLAVE mól (thrall) –MŌ, VT43:31

SLAY nahta– (see also SLAYER concerning a possible alternative form #nehta-). Passive participle nahtana in the phrase *nahtana ló Turin *”slain by Túrin” (VT49:24). The verb mac- meant “slay” in early material (LT1:259), but in a much later source reproduced in VT39.11, this verb is translated “hew with a sword” instead.

SLAYER #nehtar, isolated from Morinehtar “Darkness-slayer” (PM:384, 385), name of a wizard (istar). The noun #nehtar “slayer” may seem to presuppose a verbal stem #nehta– “to slay, kill”, though the form nahta– appears elsewhere (VT49:24); this may be an example of Eldarin A/E variation.

SLEEP (noun) fúmë. (Read perhaps *húmë, since Tolkien decided that fu– becomes hu– in Quenya. This word points to *fum- [hum-] as the stem of the verb “to sleep”.)  FLOWER OF SLEEP – see POPPY. –LT1:253

 SLENDER nindë (stem *nindi-), teren, terenëNIN-DI, TER

 SLIDE DOWN talta- (slip, collapse) –MC:223

 SLIP talta- (slide down, collapse) –MC:223

 SLOPE (vb) talta-; SLOPE (noun) pendë (downslope, declivity), ampendë (upward slope), amban (upward slope, hillside), SLOPING DOWN penda (inclined) –PEN, AM2

 SLOW lencaLT2:341

 SLUMBER (vb) lor-, muru-, SLUMBER (noun) lórë, murmë, SLUMBROUS lorda (drowsy), murmëa

LT1:259, LOS, LT1:259, 260

 SMALL níca, *nincë (said to have “good senses”; the latter is given in the archaic form “ninki” and would therefore have the stem-form ninci-), nípa, *nimpë (said to be used “usually with connotation of weakness“; the latter adj. is given in the archaic form nimpi and would therefore have the stem-form nimpi-), pitya (the latter is never translated by Tolkien, but Pitya-naucor is glossed “petty-dwarves”, and pica “small spot” must be derived from the same root.) In one compound, Tolkien seemingly changed pitya to nitya (see PM:365, VT48:15). Cf. also nauca, an adjective “especially applied to things that though in themselves full-grown were smaller or shorter than their kind, and were hard, twisted, or ill-shapen.” LT1:256 has an adjective inya “small”, but this is probably not a valid word in LotR-style Quenya (in which language *inya may mean “my, mine”.) –VT48:18, VT47:26, PIK, WJ:389, 413

SMALL INSECT (fly); SMALL MAN, see MAN; SMALL STONE sar (stem sard-, as in pl. sardi); YOUNG OR SMALL WOMAN, see GIRL. –VT47:35, SAR

SMEAR mordo (shadow, obscurity, stain, dimness) –VT45:35, MOR

 SMEARED púrëa (discoloured) –MC:223

SMELL (strong smell): The form aññol– is translated “strong smell” in one source (VT45:5), but this does not look like a regular Quenya word and is perhaps an underlying “stem” (Quenya *angol-?) The element ñol– is also translated “smell” in the same source, but again it is uncertain whether this is a primitive stem or a Quenya word (in the latter case, we would see *nol– in late Exilic Quenya). See ODOUR, STINK.

SMILE raita-, pa.t. rëantë; SMILING raina (gracious, sweet-faced). NOTE: A homophone of raita– means “make network or lace” or “catch in a net” (its past tense may however be *raitanë rather than rëantë), and a homophone of raina means “nettled, enlaced”. –PE17:182, VT44:35

 SMITH tano (craftsman), SMITH OF THE WORLD Talca Marwa (a title of Aulë) –TAN, LT1:266

 SMOOTH pastaPATH

 SMOULDERING HEAT yulmë (red [?heat] – Tolkien’s handwriting was illegible); SMOULDERING WOOD yúla (ember) –YUL

 SNAKE ango (stem angu-, pl. angwi), leuca, lócë(serpent, dragon; “so do the Eldar name the worms of Melko[r]”, LT2:85) –ANGWA, LotR:1149, LT2:340

 SNARE (noun) remma, neuma; SNARE (verb) #rem(cited as “remi-“, evidently including the connecting vowel of the aorist, as in *remin “I snare”) –VT42:12, SNEW

 SNARL yarra (growl) –MC:223

 SNOUT mundo (nose, cape). Stem *mundu-, given the primitive form mbundu. –MBUD

 SNOW lossë (spesifically “fallen snow”, also adjective “snow-white”; olos, †olossë. Etym also gives niquë, but this word is obsoleted by a statement in WJ:417: “niquedoes not refer to snow, but to cold”. This statement may obsolete niquetil “snowcap” in LT1:266. Is niquis “snow” from the same source a valid word? GL:35 has fáwë “snow” and fauta “it snows”.) LIGHT SNOW is, SNOW-WHITE lossë (which may also be the noun “snow”), SNOWDROP nieninquë (lit. “white tear”) –RGEO:69, GOLÓS, NIK-W-, NEI, LT1:256, LT1:262/266

SO may generally be rendered by sië “thus” (see THUS for reference). Also san (VT49:18) or sinen = “by this means, so” (VT49:18). The word ta is used to qualify adjectives, e.g. ta mára “so good” (VT49:12). MAY IT BE SO, see AMEN. IT IS SO (used = “yes”).

 SOAP lipsa –LIB1

 SOFT mussë, milya (gentle, weak) (Note: milya– is also a verb “long for”), maxa (pliant), moica –VT39:17, VT45:34, MASAG, GL:58

 SOIL 1. (noun) cemen (earth), 2. (vb) vahta- (stain), SOILED vára (dirty) –LT1:257, WA3

 SOLE erya (single), SOLITUDE eressë (also as adverb: single, only, alone)ERE cf. LT1:269

 SOLE OF FOOT tallunë, probably with stem talluni– given primitive form talrunya.(A “Qenya” word for sole,  talas in LT2, is probably obsolete) –RUN, LT2:347

 SOLEMN PROMISE vanda (oath, pledge) –UT:317

 SOLITARY eressëa (lonely; compare “Solitary Isle” as one translation of Tol Eressëa, Letters:386), erda (deserted) –LT1:269

 SOLITUDE eressë (also as adverb: singly, only, alone) –ERE, LT1:269

SOLSTICE, NEW SUN AFTER: ceuranar –VT48:7

SOMEBODY (impersonal personal pronoun) mo (one). –VT49:20

 SOMBRE morna (black, gloomy, dark) –MOR

 SON yondo (male descendant), also short form yón (Yón referring to Jesus as “the Son” in the source); dative i yondon “to the Son” in VT43:36-37. Cf. also the suffixion, e.g. Finwion “son of Finwë”. Variant yonyo “son, big boy” (a term also used for “middle finger” or “middle toe” in children’s play, though Tolkien may have replaced it by hanno “brother”, VT48:4). Vocative yonya *“my son”, a contraction of *yondonya. (The forms , vondo “son” in LT2 are probably obsolete, as are the notions there recorded that yondo meant “(great) grandson” and that yô-, yond- “son” was used only in poetry. But LT2 does confirm that –ion was “very common…in patronymics”.) SON OF THE DARK (= Morgoth) morion –YO, VT44:12, 17, VT43:36-37, MR:217, VT47:10, 15, LR:61, LT2:336, 344, LT1:260 cf. FS

 SONG lindë (air, tune, singing), #lírë(only attested in the instrumental case: lírinen, so the stem-form would seem to be líri-), lirilla (lay). See also MUSIC. –GLIN, Nam, LT1:258

 SOON ratoArct           

SORCERY núlë (black arts). (The word is spelt “ñúle” in the source, reflecting the older pronunciation; in Tengwar spelling the initial nasal should therefore be represented by the letter Noldo). –PE17:125

 SORROW nyérë (grief). –GL:60

SORT, see SPECIES, KIND. Adjectives OF THIS SORT sítë, OF THAT SORT taitë –VT49:11, 18

 SOUL fëa (spirit; pl fëar is attested. In MR:330, Tolkien notes that fëa is “roughly but not exactly equivalent to…’soul’.”) –MR:349, 218, cf. Silm:431

 SOUND (verb, “to sound”) lamya-; SOUND (noun) lamma (= sound in general?), hlón (evidently hlon-, pl. hloni is attested) (noise), róma (= loud sound, trumpet-sound. Note: róma also means “shoulder”), láma (according to Etym = “ringing sound, echo”, but see below); SOUND OF WIND ; SOUNDTASTElámatyávë(pl. lámatyáveris attested), i.e., “individual pleasure in the sounds and forms of words”. Tolkien seems undecided about the exact meaning of láma. Etym gives “ringing sound, echo”; in WJ:416 it is said that the stem LAMA refers “especially to vocal sounds, but was applied only to those that were confused or inarticulate. It was generally used to describe the various cries of beasts.” But the word lámatyávë “sound-taste”, by which an Elf chose or made a name for him/herself [see NAME-CHOOSING], seems to imply that láma can also be used of artuculated speech. –LAM, WJ:394/VT48:29, ROM, VT47:12, MR:215, 216

SOUP sulpaLT1:266

SOUTH hyarmen (LT2:248 also gives Sahóra, but this is hardly a valid word in Tolkien’s later Quenya); SOUTHERN hyarmenya, “SOUTH-VICTOR” Hyarmendacil (one of the Kings of Gondor), SOUTHEASTLANDS Hyarrostar, SOUTHWESTLANDS Hyarnustar (regions in Númenor) –KHYAR/LotR:1157, LotR:1075/1082, UT:165, 446

 SOW #rer(cited as rerin “I sow”, 1st person aorist), pa.t. rendë. SOWN FIELD resta (acre). –RED, VT46:11 cf. RED

SPADE sampa –QL:82

 SPARK make/cause to spark: tinta- (kindle). SPARK (noun) tinwë. –TIN/VT46:19, Silm:438

 SPARKLE (vb) tintina(pl. tintinar is attested), MAKE TO SPARKLE tinta- (kindle); SPARK (noun) tinwë(often = “star”). In the entry TIN of the Etymologies as printed in LR, the noun tinwë is glossed “sparkle”, but according to VT46:19, Tolkien’s manuscript has “spark”. –TIN, Silm:438

 SPEAK quet- (pa.t. quentë) (say, talk). Aorist quetë (spelt “qete”) in source. Also carpa, pa.t. carampë (talk, use tongue; the latter verb apparently does not take a direct object).  –LT2:348, VT49:19

 SPEAR hatal, ehtë, stem *ehti-. (The gloss of the word ecco has also been quoted as “spear”, but this is a misreading; see SPINE.) SPEAR-HEAD nehtë (gore, wedge, narrow promontory. Note: a homophone means “honeycomb”), SPEAR-POINT nasta (gore, triangle),SPEARMAN ehtyarVT49:14, EK/EKTE, SNAS cf. VT46:14, UT:282

 SPECIES nostalë (kind) –LT1:272

 SPEED (vb) horta- (urge, send flying), SPEEDING hortalë (urging) –KHOR

 SPELLING tencelë (writing system) –TEK

 SPIDER liantë (so in Etym; in LT1:271, liantë is glossed “tendril”); SPIDER FILAMENT lia (Note: lia-is also the verb “twine”); SPIDER’S WEB ungwë (but in LT1:271, ungwë is glossed “spider”) –SLIG, LotR:1157

 SPIKE nassë (thorn), tinda;ROW OF SPIKES (or teeth) carcassë, carcaras –NAS, LT1:258, LT2:344

SPIN (make spin), see STIR

 SPINDRIFT wingë (wingi-)(crest [of wave], foam). In Exilic Quenya, the word would have initial v– for older w-. –LT1:273 cf. WIG

SPINE ecco (In the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry EK/EKTE, this word and its “Noldorin”/Sindarin cognate ech are glossed “spear”, but according to VT45:12, this is a misreading for “spine” in Tolkien’s manuscript.)

SPINNING WHEEL querma (turn-table) –PE17:65

 SPIRANT CONSONANT suryaSUS

 SPIRIT fëa (= the spirit or “soul” of an incarnate, normally housed in a body; pl fëar is attested), ëala (“being”; pl. eälar is attested. Eälar are spirits whose natural state it is to exist without a physical body, e.g. Balrogs), súlë(Þ)(earlier [MET] thúlë, Þúlë)(maybe a more “impersonal” word for spirit), manu (= departed spirit; LT1:260 has mánë), fairë (= spirit in general, as opposed to matter, or a phantom or disembodied spirit, when seen as a pale shape. Pl. fairi is attested), vilissë (a “Qenya” word maybe not valid in LotR-style Quenya). A person’s “spirit” meaning his or her general personality and attitude may be expressed by the word órë, in LotR defined as “heart, inner mind” (q.v.), cf. PM:337, where it is said that “there dwelt in her [Galadriel] the noble and generous spirit (órë) of the Vanyar”.FIELD-SPIRIT Nermi (pl. Nermir is attested. The Nermir are “fays of the meads”.)  HOLY SPIRIT airefëa (other version: fairë aista; both versions are attested with the dative endingn attached). SPIRIT-IMPULSE fëafelmë (impulses originating with the spirit, e.g. love, pity, anger, hate). –MR:349, 218, 165; cf. Silm:431; LotR:1157, MAN, MC:223, MR:349, GL:23, LT1:260, VT43:36-37, VT44:17, VT41:19 cf. 13

 SPIT (noun? verb? both?) piutaPIW

SPLENDOUR alcar (glory, radiance) –VT47:13, WJ:369

 SPLIT (noun) sanca (Þ)(cleft) –STAK

 SPONGE hwan (hwand-, as in pl. hwandi) (fungus) –SWAD

 SPORT tyalië (game, play) –TYAL

 SPOT men (place – Tolkien may have rejected this word, see PLACE), SMALL SPOT pica (dot) –MEN, PIK

  SPRAY (of fall or fountain) rossë (fine rain, dew) –Letters:282 cf. ROS

  SPREAD palu-, palya- (open wide, extend, expand) –PAL

  SPRING (vb) tuia- (sprout); SPRING (noun; but for the season, see SPRING-TIME below) ehtelë (fountain, issue of water), SPRING OF WATER capalinda, WATER FALLING OUT SWIFTLY FROM A ROCKY SPRING celussë (freshet); SPRING, SPRING-TIME tuilë (this word literally means “budding, also collectively – buds, new shoots, fresh green” [LT1:269]. Also used = dayspring, early morn. In the Calendar of Imladris, tuilë was a precisely defined period of 54 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition. Besides tuilë, LT1:269 also has tuiliérë.) FIRST BEGINNING OF SPRING coirë (“stirring”, according to the Calendar of Imladris a period of 54 days in early spring); “SPRING-SINGER” (i.e., swallow) tuilindo. SPRING TIDE, see TIDE. –TUY/LotR 1141, 1145, KEL, UT:426, LT1:260, Silm:429, LT2:338/LT1:269, VT39:7

  SPROUT (vb) tuia– (spring), *lohta- (emended from the actual reading lokta because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) (put forth leaves or flowers); SPROUT (noun) tuima (bud) –TUY, LT:258

SQUAT haca –GL:47

  STABBING SWORD (short) ecet (broad-bladed sword) –UT:284/432

  STAFF – LT1:264 has vandl, but the cluster ndl cannot occur in LotR-style Quenya. Read *vandil?

  STAIN (vb) vahta-, STAIN (noun) mordo (shadow, obscurity, smear, dimness), vaxë. –WA3, MOR/VT45:35

STALK (noun) sirpë (stem) –QL:84

STAND #tar– (attested in the past tense: tarnë, PE17:71)

  STAND ASIDE! heca! (be gone!). Also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal “you stand aside!” –WJ:364    

  STANDARD tulwë (pole)LT1:270

  STAR elen (normal pl eleni, but occasionally eldi in verse; allative elenna and pl ablative elenillor are attested), él (pl. éli is mentioned), tinwë (properly = sparkle), ílë. (Note: in Etym elen is said to be poetic, but Tolkien later concluded that elen was “the normal word for a star on the actual firmanent”, the poetic word being él instead. According to MR:388, a tinwë was one of the “apparent stars” on Varda’s simulacrum covering Valinor, also called nillë or “silver glint”. Etym mentions the words ellen and elena without glossing them, but according to Silm:431 elena is an adjective meaning “of the stars”.) TWINKLING STAR tingilya, tingilindë, HAVING MANY STARS lintitinwë; STARLIKE elvëa (pl. elvië is attested); STARWARDS elenna (Elenna or Elennanórë, “the land named Starwards”, a name of Númenor); STARLIGHT silmë (light of Silpion); STARCROWNED, CROWNED WITH STARS (a name of Taniquetil) Elerrína (so in Silm:42; Etym has Elerína); STAR-QUEEN (=Varda), STARLIT DUSK, STARRYTWILIGHT tindómë; FLASHING OR [?STARRY] LIGHT élë See also *STELLAR. The word Tintánië is glossed STARMAKER as another title of Varda, but it is also interpreted as an abstract STARMAKING. –EL, Silm:313, MC:222 cf. 215, TIN, WJ:362, UT:317, LotR:1157, LT1:269, MC:223, Silm:42, DOMO, Silm:438, VT45:12, TAN/VT46:17

STATE (more or less = *”condition”, not a “state” as a political unit) indo (perhaps especially a state of mind, since indo is translated “heart, mood” in the Etymologies, stem ID), in early material also sóma, explicitly glossed “state, condition”. –VT39:23, QL:85$

  STATUTE namnaMR:258

  STEADFAST tulca (firm, strong, immoveable; Note: there is a homophone meaning “fix, set up, establish”), vórima, voronda (“steadfast in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise, faithful”). –TULUK cf. LT1:270, UT:317

  STEADY tulunca (firm) –LT1:270

  STEEL erë, eren (meaning either iron or steel), yaisa –LT1:252, GL:37

  STEEP aiqua, oronta; STEEP ISLE tollë –AYAK, LT1:256, VT47:13, 26

 *STELLAR elenya (no gloss is actually given; the word is simply defined as “an adjective referring to stars”. There are also the adjectives elda and elena, translated “of the stars”. But in normal Quenya, elda primarily means “Elf”, pl. Eldar. Use elenya or elena.) –WJ:362, Silm:431

  STEM telco (leg), sirpë (stalk) –LotR:1154, QL:84

STENCH, see STINK

  STEWARD arandur (king’s servant, minister) –Letters:386, UT:313

  STICK TO himya- (cleave to, abide by, adhere), STICKING himba (adhering) –KHIM, VT45:22

STICKER-UP tolyo, a term used in children’s play for “middle finger” or “middle toe”. –VT47:10

STIFF norna (tough), tarya; hranga (hard; awkward, difficult). Note: hranga– is also a verb “thwart”. STIFF, DRY GRASS sara (Þ)(bent) –WJ:413, TÁRAG, PE17:154, 185, STAR

  STILL (= *”yet, despite that”, not in the sense “unmoving”:) er (only, one, alone, but, still) –LT1:269

  STING nasta- (prick) –NAS   

STINK (noun, = *”stench”) holwë, STINKING *holwëa (given as “olwea” in source; see Quenya-English wordlist for further discussion of why the form with initial h– may be preferred) –PE13:162, 145

STIR (or, make spin) quir-, pa.t. quindë –QL:77

  STIRRING coirë (according to the Calendar of Imladris a period of 54 days in early spring)LotR:1141, 1142

  STONE ondo (defined as stone “as a material” in Etym, but used of natural rocks in MC:222: ondolissë mornë, *”upon dark rocks”. LT1 and LT2 has simply on, ondo “stone, a stone”), sar (sard-) (= small stone); OF STONE sarna. STONE SONG Ondolindë (Gondolin). See also ELFSTONE, FLINTSTONE. –GONOD (see GOND), Silm:431, LT1:254/LT2:342, SAR, Silm:415

  STOOP núta- (sink, set [of Sun and Moon]) –LT1:263 cf. NDŪ

  STOP hauta- (take a rest, cease), pusta- (put a stop to, but also intr: cease), #tap(cited in the form tapë, 3rd person sg. aorist; misreading “tápe” with a long vowel in the Etymologies as printed in LR, see VT46:17. The pa.t. tampë is given) (block), STOP SHORT nuhta- (stunt, prevent from coming to completion, not allow to continue). FULL STOP (“in punctuation” – according to VT46:10, 33 a dot placed under a consonant to indicate that it is not followed by a vowel) putta, pusta; STOPPED CONSONANT (i.e. consonant with such an underposed dot) punta; STOPPER tampaKHAW, PUS/VT46:10, 33, TAP/VT46:17, WJ:413

  STORM raumo (glossed “[noise of a] storm” in MC:223)

STORY quenta (narrative, history) –KWET/VT39:16

  STRAIGHT téra (right), lenwa (long, thin, narrow); STRAIGHT LINE tëa (road) (note: not to be confused with the verb tëa– “indicate”) –TE3, TEÑ, LT2:341

STRANGER ettelëa (reading uncertain; ettelëa seems to be primarily an adjective “foreign”, though perhaps it can also be used as a noun “foreign (one)” = “stranger”) –VT45:13

  STRAP latta (Note: a homophone means “hole, pit”) –LATH

  STRAY ranya(note: ranya or aranya is also the adjective “free”), STRAYING (noun) ránë (wandering) (pl. probably *ráner not ráni; cf. the similar formation tyávë “taste” pl tyáver.) –RAN

STREAM (vb) celu- (“streem out swiftly”; there is also a noun celu “stream”), STREAM (noun) celumë (flow, flowing, flood, tide), celu, sírë (river); STREAM IN THE WIND hlapu- (fly in the wind; part. hlápula is attested) –UT:446, LT1:265, MC:223, 222/LT1:257

  STRETCH lenu-;STRETCH OUT (intr.) *rahta- (reach) (Emended from the actual reading rakta; Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) –LT1:341, 335

  STREET mallëMBAL, LT1:263

  STRENGTH túrë (mastery, might, victory), (physical strength:) tuoQL:95, TUG

STRENGTHENING antoryamë (used of various manipulations of a stem, such as lengthening vowels or consonants or turning a consonant or a vowel into a “blend” [see BLEND]) –VT:39:9

STRETCHED taina (elongated, lengthened, extended) –VT39:7 cf. TAY

  STRIDER TelcontarMR:216

STRIKE #pet– (knock), pa.t. pentë given. The verb is cited as “pete“, perhaps with a suffixed stem-vowel. –QL:73

STRIPPED #racina (only pl. racinë is attested) (deprived). STRIPPED SIGN #racina tengwë (only pl. racinë tengwi is attested). Also translated “deprived sign”, this was in early Elvish analysis of Quenya the term for a consonant with no following vowel; the vowel was held to have disappeared or been omitted. –VT39:16

  STRIPPED BARE helda (naked) –SKEL

STROKE (verb) palta– means to “pass the sensitive palm over a surface: feel with the hand, stroke etc.” –VT47:8-9

  STROKE (noun) (“of pen of brush [´]when not used as long mark”) tecco. Cf. also QUICK STROKE rincë (stem *rinci-) (flourish) –TEK, RIK/VT46:11 (VT indicating that the proper reading is “quick stroke”, not “quick shake” as in the Etymologies as printed in LR)

  STRONG tulca (firm, immoveable, steadfast. Note: there is a homophone meaning “fix, set up, establish”), STRONG (physically) polda (burley). STRONG/SWIFT AT RUNNING nórima. In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the word sarnë is glossed “strong place” (entry SAR), but according to VT46:12, the gloss should actually read “stony place”. –TULUK, POL, VT49:29

STUDY (long) nólë (wisdom, lore, knowledge). (In Etym this word is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Nólë is so spelt also in Silm:432. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) –ÑGOL, Silm:432

STUB, STUMP tolbo (read perhaps *tolvo in the more usual form of Quenya) (said to be a stub or stump “as of a truncated arm or branch”). –VT47:28

  STUNT nuhta-(prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue) –WJ:413

STUNTED nauca –VT39:7

  SUBLIME, THE Varda (this word should probably not be used as a normal adjective. It is also translated “the Lofty”.) –WJ:402

  SUCCESSOR neuro (follower) –NDEW

SUCH may be rendered by the adjective sitë “of that sort” (VT49:18)

  SUFFICE farya- (pa.t. farnë; VT46:9 also lists the curious pa.t. form farinyë). (Note: #farnë also means “dwelling” and “foliage”); SUFFICIENCY fárë, farmë (plenitude, all that is wanted), SUFFICIENT farëa (enough) –PHAR/VT46:9

  SUFFOCATE quoro- (choke) Verbs ino seem not to occur in later Quenya; read *quor-? It has also been questioned whether the combination quo– is still possible in Tolkien’s later Quenya. –LT1:264

SUIT camta(sic; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya, and while the source does not explicitly say that this word is Quenya, it is difficult to understand what other language could be intended) (to [make] fit, accomodate, adapt) –VT44:14

  SUMMER lairë (Note: a homophone means “poem”. In the Calendar of Imladris, lairë was a precisely defined period of 72 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition), saiwen (cf. saiwa “hot”.) “EVER-SUMMER” oiolairë, “SUMMER-SNOW-WHITE” lairelossë (evergreen trees brought to Númenor by the Eldar) –LotR:1141, 1145/VT45:26, Letters:282, LT1:265, UT:167, 458, UT:167, 449

  SUMMIT (of a mountain) ingor (PM:340). LT1:256 gives ormë “crest, summit”, but in Tolkien’s later Quenya, ormë means “wrath, haste, violence, rushing”.

  SUMMON tulta- (send for, fetch), naham(passive participle nahamna “summoned” given), yal- (dative infinitive #yalien is attested in enyalien “for the re-calling”). Noun (A) SUMMONS nahámë. –TUL, VT45:21, UT:317

  SUN Anar, Úrin (Úrind-) (the latter was a “name of the Sun”; in LT1:271 úrin is glossed “blazing hot”, and the word for “Sun” is Úr [“Ûr“] or Úri, Úrinci, Urwen.The stem Úrin is derived from was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from the same stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it.) Naira (“the heart of flame”), Calavénë, Calaventë (other names for the Sun). Yet another term was Ancalë or “Radiant One”, but it is unclear whether or not Tolkien rejected this form (see LR:362 s.v. KAL). NEW SUN AFTER SOLSTICE ceuranar (VT48:7). SUNLIGHT árë (older [MET] ázë); SUNRISE anarórë, ambaron/Ambarónë (uprising, Orient) (a similar but untranslated word, Ambaróna, occurs in LotR), rómen (glossed “uprising, sunrise, east” in Silm:437, but the normal meaning of the word is always “east”). SUNSET andúnë (west, evening).(Amuntë in LT2 is certainly obsolete in LotR-style Quenya.) RAY OF THE SUN firin (this may not be a valid word in LotR-style Quenya; in a later source, firin is the adjective “dead”). –ANÁR, UR, LotR:1157, LotR:254, ORO, AM, LotR:490, NDU, MR:198, Silm:428, LT2:335, 341

SUP salpa- (so in Etym; “take a sup of” in LT1:266) (sip, lick up) –SÁLAP, LT1:266

SUPERLATIVELY langë (extremely, surpassingly) –PE17:92

  SUPPORT (noun) tulco (stem *tulcu-; pl. *tulqui) (prop) –TULUK

  SUPPOSE intya-, cíta– (cítan “I suppose”); SUPPOSITION intya (guess, idea) –INK, VT49:19

  SUPREME – The Supreme Aratar (pl; sg #Arata). The Aratar are the mightiest of the Valar: Manwë, Varda, Ulmo, Yavanna, Aulë, Mandos, Nienna, and Oromë. Aratar is also rendered “High Ones, Exalted Ones” –Silm 32/381, WJ:402

  SURE tanca (firm, fixed) –TAK

SURROUND – see GO ROUND (under entry for GO) regarding the verb pel

  SURF solor, solossë (surge). LINE OF SURF falassë (beach, shore)SOL, LT1:266, Silm:431

  SURFACE palúrë (bosom, bosom of Earth Tolkien equated palúrë with the Old English word folde), palmëPAL

  SURGE (noun) solossë (surf) –LT1:266

SURPASS lahta– (pass over, cross, excel); adv. SURPASSINGLY langë (extremely, superlatively) –PE17:92

  SWALLOW tuilindo (lit. “spring-singer”). –TUY/LIN2/LT1:269/LT2:338

SWAN alqua; HAVEN OF THE SWANS AlqualondëÁLAK/Silm:427/LT1:249, VT42:7, LT2:335 (LT1:249 also has alquë), UT:417

  SWARD palis (lawn) –LT1:264

SWARM umba; SWARMING úmëa (abundant, teaming – but elsewhere úmëa is defined as “evil”, so the word úvëa of related meaning may be preferred) –VT48:32

  SWART varnë (stem varni-) (brown, dark brown) The form varni- is evidently used in compounds. –BARÁN

SWEET lissë. Other sources use lissë as a noun “sweetness”, and lissë is also used for the “grace” of God (specifically Erulissë or *”God-sweetness”). Another word glossed “sweet” is melda, but since it is also defined as “beloved” and “dear”, this adjective may describe a “sweet” person rather than sweet taste. –Nam, RGEO:66, VT43:29, VT45:34 cf. MEL

SWEET-FACED raina (smiling, gracious). NOTE: A homophone means “nettled, enlaced”. –VT44:35

  SWELL tiuya- (grow fat) –TIW

  SWIFT #linta (only pl lintë is attested), tyelca (agile, hasty), larca, alarca (rapid), arauca (rushing). STRONG/SWIFT AT RUNNING nórima. SWIFT HORSE, see HORSE. –Nam, KYELEK, LAK2, LT2:347, VT49:29s

  SWIRL hwinya- (eddy, gyrate) –SWIN

SWORD macil; BROAD SWORD lango (also = prow of a ship), LARGE SWORD falquan; SHORT STABBING SWORD, BROAD-BLADED SWORD ecet, SWORD BLADE maica (also blade of any cutting tool or weapon, but esp. sword-blade), †russë (corruscation), SWORDSMAN macar. –MAK/LT1:259/VT39:11/VT45:32, LAG, LT2:341, UT:284/432, VT39:11, RUS, VT39:11

  SWORN BROTHER otorno (associate) –TOR

  SYRUP pirya- (juice) –PIS

SYSTEM (OR CODE) OF SIGNS tengwesta (language, grammar); DECIMAL SYSTEM maquanotië –VT39:15, VT47:10

 

  <T>

TABLE sarno; TURN-TABLE querma (spinning wheel) –QL:82, PE17:65

TAKE, see GRASP. TAKE AS HUSBAND/WIFE (to oneself), see WED.

TALE nyárë (saga, history), nyarna (saga) –NAR2

   TALK (verb) quet- (pa.t. quentë) (say, speak), carpa– pa.t. carampë (speak, use tongue – the latter verb apparently does not take a direct object). TALK (noun) quetil (language, tongue) –LT2:348, VT45:25 cf. KWET, PE17:126

TALL halla, tunda (Note: the latter has a homophone meaning “kindle”), tára (high)LotR:1157, TUN, WJ:417

TALON nappa, namma (claw) –VT47:20

  TANGLE fasta-PHAS

  TAP tamin (“I tap”, 1st pers. aorist) (pa.t. tamnë) –TAM

  TAPER lícuma (candle) –MC:223

  TARN moilëLT2:349

TARRY lemya– (remain). Possibly this verb should have the past tense *lemnë rather than ?lemyanë, since intransitive verbs in –ya may seem to surrender this suffix in the past tense. –VT45:26

TASSEL fas, fatsë –GL:34

  TASTE (vb) #tyav(cited in source as tyavin “I taste”, 1st pers. aorist); TASTE (noun) tyávë(pl. tyáver is attested in the compound lámatyáver “sound-tastes”; see SOUND-TASTE.) –KYAB, MR:215

  TAUT tunga (tight, [of strings:] resonant) –TUG

  TEAR nírë, niëNEI, LT1:262

TEEM (verb) úma-; TEEMING úmëa (abundant, swarming – but elsewhere úmëa is defined as “evil”, and for “teeming” one could simply say *úmala as the participle of úma-) –VT48:32

TELEPATHY see THOUGHT

  TELL #nyar(cited as nyarin “I tell”, 1st pers. aorist) (relate); NOT TO BE TOLD OR RELATED avanyárima –NAR2, WJ:370

  TEMPLE cordaLT1:257

TEMPTATION #úsahtië (inducement to do wrong). Earlier variants, possibly abandoned by Tolkien: #terfantië, #terpellië, #insangarë (all attested in the allative: úsahtienna, terfantienna etc.) –VT43:23, 22

  TEN quëan, quain. (In earlier sources the word cainen occurs, but according to VT48:12, Tolkien eventually rejected this word.) For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. GROUP OF TEN (10 similar things) maquat (actually the dual form of maqua “hand”, referring to the ten fingers on both hands). Ordinal TENTH quainëa. The fraction ONE TENTH is given as caista (and cast) in VT48:11, but since Tolkien later decided that the word for “ten” was to have the initial sound qu– rather than c-, we must apparently read *quaista (and *quast, but normally Quenya words do not end in consonant clusters). –VT48:6, 11, VT47:7, VT42:25, cf. KAYAN, KAYAR  

  TENDRIL liantë (but in Etym, this word is glossed “spider”, q.v.) –LT1:271

TENTH quainëa –VT42:25

  TERRIBLE rúcima, aica (fell, dire, sharp); VERY TERRIBLE CREATURE raucoWJ:415, PM:347, VT39:10

  TERRIFY ruhta-WJ:415

  TERROR ossë (Ossë is also the name of a Maia held to be responsible for storms at sea.) –GOS, Silm:33, 34

TEST (put to the test) tyasta-, pa.t. tyasantë –QL:49

  THANKSGIVING #hantalë (isolated from Eruhantalë “thanksgiving to Eru”. A verbal stem #hanta- “thank” can also be isolated.) –UT:436

  THAT (1) (demonstrative): tana (an adjectival word, VT49:11; in one version of the language also tanya, as in tanya wendë “that maiden”, MC:215-16). Also yana with meaning “the former” (e.g. *loa yana “that year” referring to a former year). Adj. OF THAT SORT taitë; IN THAT WAY tanen; THAT MATTER tama. Also see THIS regarding the word talumë “at this [or, that] time”.TA, YA, VT49:11, 18

THAT (2) (pronoun) ta, also translated “it”. (Notice that in some versions of the language, Tolkien wanted ta to be a plural pronoun “they, them” used of non-living things. See the various entries on ta in the Quenya-English wordlist.) Sa, normally translated “it”, is also defined as “that” in one source. IT IS THAT náto, IT IS NOT THAT uito. –VT49:11, TA, VT49:18, 28

THAT (3) (relative pronoun “who[m], which, that”). According to VT47:21, the relative pronoun is ye with reference to a person (*i Elda ye tirnen “the Elf who/that I watched”), plural i (e.g. *Eldar i… “Elves that…”). The impersonal relative pronoun (“that = which”) is ya (e.g. *i parma ya hirnen “the book that/which I found”), pl. presumably *yar (*i parmar yar… “the books that…”). This gives a system with great symmetry, but Tolkien also used i in a singular sense, in the sentence i Eru i or ilyë mahalmar ëa “the One who is [or, that is] above all thrones”, though i is indeed plural in i carir quettar ómainen “those who [or, those that] form words with voices”. A relative pronoun ya *”which” is found in the “Arctic” sentence; a long variant also occurs in the corpus (VT43:27-28). Case-forms: The plural locative of ya is attested as yassen “in which” in Nam (sg. *yassë), the genitive and ablative forms of ye are attested as yëo and yello respectively in VT47:21, and the same source gives ion and illon as the corresponding plural forms. –VT47:21, WJ:391, UT:305, 317, Arct

THAT (4) (conjunction, as in “I know that you are here”) i, cf. the sentence savin Elessar ar i nánë aran Ondórëo “I believe Elessar really existed and that he was a king of Gondor”  (VT49:27). In one version of early “Qenya”, this conjunction appeared as ne instead (PE14:54).

  THATCH tupsëTUP

  THE i.In Quenya, the definite article is generally used as in English. However, notice that it is not used before plural words denoting an entire people or race, such as Valar, Quendi, Noldor, Sindar, Eldar, Ainur, Fírimar etc. This is evident from examples like lambë Eldaron “the language of the Eldar [lit. simply “Eldar”]”, Valar valuvar “the will of the Valar [lit. simply “Valar”] will be done”. Cf. Tolkien’s use of “Men” with no article, meaning the entire human race or humans in general, while “the Men” would be a group of individuals. Anar “the Sun” and Isil “the Moon” are probably treated like proper names in Quenya; they do not take the article. When a noun is determined by a following genitive, it is evidently optional whether it takes the article or not: mannar Valion “into the hands [lit. simply “hands”] of the Lords”, Indis i Ciryamo “The Mariner’s Wife, *The Wife [lit. simply “Wife”] of the Mariner” – but contrast I Equessi Rúmilo “the Sayings of Rúmil”, i arani Eldaron “the Kings of the Eldar”. If the genitive precedes the noun it connects with, the article must probably be left out in all cases, as in English (*Eldaron arani,?Eldaron i arani). Note: i is also the relative pronoun “who, that” and the conjunction “that”; see THAT #3 and #4. –I, WJ:404, 368, FS, UT:8,  WJ:398, 369    

  THEE (object form of THOU, or singular YOU) lye, tye; see THOU for full discussion and references. Ólë in VT43:29 probably meant *”with thee” at the time of writing, but Tolkien apparently decided to go forlye rather than justle as the relevant ending; compare aselyë “with thee” in a later source. –VT43:29, VT47:31

THEFT pilwë (robbery) –QL:73

  THEIR may be expressed as the endinglta (alsoltya) added to nouns (VT49:16), e.g. *aldalta or *aldaltya = “their tree”. – In some sources, Tolkien instead gives the ending as –nta (nassentar pl. “their true-being[s]”, PE17:174) orntya (called an “archaic” form in VT49:17), just as he hesitated betweenltë andntë as the ending for “they” (VT49:17; see THEY). In “colloquial Quenya”, the endingrya could also be used for the plural pronoun “their” (símaryassen  “in their imaginations”, VT49:16), because it was felt to contain the plural endingr, but in “correct” written Quenya –rya was rather the ending for “his, her, its” (VT49:17). – According to VT49:17, the vowel –i– is inserted before the ending –lta/-ltya or –nta/-ntya when it is added to a stem ending in a consonant (but the evidence concerning connecting vowels before pronominal endings is rather diverse). – All these words for “their” are plural; the ending for dual “their” (describing something owned by two persons) is given in VT49:16 assta, but this clashes with a similar ending belonging to the second rather than the third person. The corresponding ending for “they” was (according to VT49:51) changed fromstë tottë, seemingly implying *-tta as the ending for dual “their”: hence e.g. *aldatta, “the tree of the two of them”. – No independent words for “their, theirs” are attested. Analogy may point to *tenya (plural) and *túnya or *tunya (dual), based on (attested) ten and (unattested) *tún as the dative forms of the pronouns te, “they” (plural and dual, repectively). Compare such attested forms as ninya “my” and menya “our”  vs. the dative pronouns nin “for me”, men “for us”.

  THEM, see THEY

THEMSELVES (reflexive pronoun) intë (for older imte, asterisked by Tolkien). A reflexive ending –ttë “they…themselves” existed at one conceptual stage (melittë, “they love themselves”), but it is uncertain how lasting this idea was; elsewhere, –ttë is explained as being ending for dual “they” instead.  –VT47:37, VT49:21

  THEN (VT49:11); the “Qenya” form sanoccurring in early material (MC:216) rather looks like the dative form of sa “it” in Tolkien’s later versions of the language. Another word glossed “then”, tai, is used for “they, them” elsewhere (VT49:33).

THENCE, talo; cf. also epeta, epta = “following that, thereupon, thence, whereupon” –VT49:11-12

THERE tás, tassë. Also compare tanomë “in the place (referred to)”, *”there”. THERE, LOOK! (as interjection) en (yonder). The form ta is defined as “there” in VT49:33, but this may be a basic root rather than a Quenya word. –VT49:11, EN, VT45:12, 19

THEREFORE etta, tánen, potai (som of these forms may have been ephemeral in Tolkien’s conception; etta is perhaps the best alternative). –VT49:11, 12

THEREUPON epeta, epta (following that, thence, whereupon) –VT49:12

  THEY, THEM (3rd person pl. and dual forms): As the pronominal ending for “they”, Tolkien hesitated betweenltë andntë. For instance, a verb like “they do” is attested both as cariltë and carintë (VT49:16, 17). In one text, the ending –ltë is marked as archaic or poetic (VT49:17), but in other paradigms no such qualification occurs (VT49:51). The alternative formnte– occurs in UT:317, with a second pronominal marker (-s “it”, denoting the object) following: Tiruvantes they will keep it”. General considerations of euphony may favourltë rather thanntë (e.g. *quenteltë rather than *quententë for “they spoke” – in the past tense, many verbs end inntë even before any pronominal endings are supplied, like quentë “spoke” in this example). The endingltë (unlikentë) would also conform with the general system that the plural pronominal endings include the plural marker l (VT48:11). – In Tolkien’s early material, the endingltë appears aslto instead (e.g. tulielto “they have come”, LT1:270). – A simple plural verb (with ending –r) can have “they” as its implied subject, as in the example quetir en “they still say” (PE17:167). –  In the independent pronouns, distinct forms of may be used depending on whether “they, them” refers to living beings (persons, animals or even plants) or to non-living things or abstracts. The “personal” independent pronoun is te, which may have a long vowel when stressed (, VT49:51). It is also attested in object position (laita te “bless them”, LotR:989 cf. Letters:308, VT43:20). It can receive case endings, e.g. dative ten (VT49:14; variant forms téna and tien, VT49:14, VT43:12, 21). As the “impersonal” they, them referring to non-living things, Tolkien in some sources used ta (VT43:20; 8, 9), but this apparently caused dissatisfaction because he also wanted ta to be the singular pronoun “that, it”. According to VT49:32, the form tai was introduced as the word for impersonal or inanimate “they, them” (in some places changed to te, apparently suggesting that Tolkien considered using te for both personal and impersonal “they/them”, abandoning the distinction). Another source (VT49:51) lists sa as the pl. impersonal form, but all other published sources use this pronoun for singular impersonal “it”, not pl. “they”. – The object “them” can also be expressed by the endingt following another pronominal suffix (laituvalmet, “we shall bless [or praise] them“, LotR:989 cf Letters:308). Presumably this endingt makes no distinction between personal and impersonal forms. – Quenya also possesses special dual forms of “they, them”, used where only two persons or things are referred to (none of these pronouns distinguish between personal and impersonal forms). In VT49:16, the old ending for dual “they” is given asstë (marked as archaic or poetic), but this would clash with the corresponding 2nd person ending. According to VT49:51, this ending was changed (also within the imaginary world) fromstë tottë, which seems the better alternative (*carittë, “the two of them do”). The independent dual pronoun is given as (ibid.) However, it may also be permissible to use te for “they, them” even where only two persons are involved (te is seemingly used with reference to Frodo and Sam in one of the examples above, laita te “bless them”). – Genitive forms, see THEIR; reflexive pronoun, see THEMSELVES.

  THICK tiuca (fat) –TIW

THIEF pilu (robber) –QL:73

  THIGH tiucoTIW

  THIN – long and thin: lenwa (straight, narrow) –LT2:341

  THING nat, nata, engwë; THING MADE tanwë (device, construction, craft), OTHER THING hya (also used as conjunction “or”).GOOD OR FORTUNATE THING, see BOON. –NĀ2, VT39:7, TAN, VT49:15, 30

  THINGOL Singollo, short for Sindacollo (so in Silm:421; MR:217 and WJ:410 have Sindicollo, where the s represents original th, cf. PM:337, where the spelling Þindikollo is used [Þ = th as in thin]. Hence, these variant forms should be spelt with in initial súlë, not silmë, in Tengwar writing). However, it appears that Thingol was usually called Elwë in Quenya. –MR:385

  THIRD neldëa, also nelya (cf. Nelyar “Thirds”, the third clan among the Elves). Fraction ONE THIRD nelesta, neldesta, nelta, nelsat –VT42:25, WJ:420, VT48:11

THIRTEEN yunquentë (also yunquenta); a Common Eldarin form nelekwe listed elsewhere could yield  *nelequë or *nelquë in Quenya. The form quainel seems to be another, possibly experimental, word for “13” in Quenya, and so is nelquëa.For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. –VT47:15, 40, VT48:21

  THIRSTY soica, fauca (open-mouthed, parched) –VT39:11, PHAU

  THIS sina (adjectival demonstrative, following its noun in our one attested example: vanda sina, “this oath”; sina is also mentioned by itself in VT49:18, there explicitly said to be adjectival). THIS DAY (or, “today”) síra (other variants, possibly rejected by Tolkien: siar, siarë, hyárë [archaic hyázë]);THIS HOUR sillumë; IN THIS PLACE sinomë [variant sínomë]; adj. OF THIS SORT site; AT THIS TIME silumë (referring to the present of the time of speech), talumë (referring to “the time we are thinking of or speaking of”). –UT:305, VT43:18, VT44:35, LotR:1003/VT44:36, VT49:11, 12 18

  THITHER tar (this word may mean literally “to it” and therefore presupposes ta as the word for “it, that”), also tara, tamen. THITHER LANDS (as seen from Valinor) Entar, Entarda (Outer Lands, Middle-earth, East) –TA, VT49:11, 33, EN

  THORN necel, in earlier material also nassë (spike), though the latter word also means “person” or “true-being” or even “(s)he is”, leaving necel a less ambiguous alternative. –PE17:55, NAS

  THORONDOR SorontarSilm:438

  THOU (singular 2nd person pronoun, distinct from plural “you” – the Quenya forms here discussed are not archaic like English “thou”, but simply express singular “you”). Quenya makes a distinction between a formal or polite “thou” and an intimate or familiar “thou”, the latter being reserved for use between close friends, family members, and lovers (VT49:51, 52). The formal pronoun normally appears as the endinglyë or (if shortened)l that is added to verbs, e.g. hiruvalyë “thou shalt find [it]” (Nam), caril or carilyë *“thou dost” or *“you (sg.) do” (VT49:16). The short form inl may be the more usual, though the long formlye– must be used if a second pronominal ending denoting the object of the verb is to be added (e.g. *cenuvalyes “thou shalt see it”, with the endings “it” appended). The endinglyë may also be added to prepositions (aselyë “with thee”,VT43:29). The independent pronoun is lye, with a long vowel (lyé, VT49:51) when stressed. This pronoun can also appear in object position (English “thee”), e.g. nai Eru lye mánata, by Tolkien translated “God bless you” (VT49:39). Case endings may be added, e.g. allative lyenna *“upon thee” (VT49:40, 41). There is also elyë “thou, even thou” (Nam, RGEO:67) as an emphatic pronoun (Nam); apparently this can also receive case endings. Such independent pronouns may also be used in copula-less constructions, e.g. aistana elyë “blessed [art] thou” (VT43:30). The intimate or familiar pronoun is similar in form, only with t instead of l. The pronominal ending is thustyë, as in carityë “thou dost, you (sg.) do” (VT49:16). It is uncertain whethertyë has a short form –t (the existence of a short form is explicitly denied in VT49:51, but –t is listed in VT49:48). At one conceptual stage Tolkien mentioned such an ending that could be added to imperatives (hecat “get thee gone”, WJ:364), but he may have dropped it because it clashed with –t as a dual ending on verbs. The independent pronoun is tye, with a long vowel when stressed (tyé, VT49:51); presumably there also exists an emphatic pronoun *etyë (still unattested). Like lye, the pronoun tye may also appear in object position (ar inyë, yonya, tye-méla “and I too, my son, love thee”, LR:61); we must also assume that tye (and emphatic *etyë) can receive case endings. – Genitive forms, see THY.

THOUGH, see ALTHOUGH

  THOUGHT sanwë; COMMUNICATION OF THOUGHT, INTERCHANGE OF THOUGHT (= telepathy) ósanwë; THOUGHT-OPENING sanwë-latya (direct, telepathic thought-transfer); THOUGHT-SENDING sanwe-menta (mental message) –VT39:23, 30, MR:415, VT41:5

THOUSAND: No term is yet known for LotR-style Quenya; in one version of earlier “Qenya” this numeral was húmë (PE13:50). Pl. húmi is attested (used after other numbers, as in “two thousand”, i.e. “two thousands”). In later Sindarin the word was apparently meneg (as in Menegroth, the Thousand Caves). The Quenya cognate has been theorized to be *mencë, but húmë may be used until a later term becomes available.

  THRALL mól (slave) –MŌ

  THREAD (fine) lia (spider filament. Note: lia- is also the verb “twine”.) –SLIG

  THREE neldë (the “Qenya” form olë in LT1:258 apparently did not survive into Tolkien’s later Quenya). Tolkien used neldë to illustrate the syntax of numerals “from…3 onwards”: The numeral follows the noun, which also receives any case endings, and the numeral is indeclinable: eleni neldë “three stars”, genitive elenion neldë “of three stars”. – In older usage, the noun would appear in the genitive plural, so that “three stars” would be elenion neldë (literally, three of stars) and case endings would be added to the numeral, so that genitive “of three stars” would be elenion neldëo; notice that the numeral inflects as a singular noun. –NEL, SA:neldor, VT47:11, VT48:6, VT49:45

  THRESHOLD fendaPHEN                   

THRICE nel –PE14:84           

  THROAT lanco (This was changed by Tolkien from lango, pl. langwi [the latter form is erroneously marked with an asterisk in the printed Etymologies, but langwi is transparently the plural and not an ancestral form, and Tolkien’s own manuscript had no asterisk: see VT45:26]. The plural form indicates that lango had the stem-form langu-. If the replacement form lanco is to behave similarly, it should have the stem *lancu– and the plural form *lanqui.) –LAK1, LANK

  THRONE mahalma (loc. pl. mahalmassen is attested) –UT:317

THRONG sanga (crowd, press); THRONG-CLEAVER Sangahyando (personal name, the “throng” being a closely formed body of enemy soldiers) –STAG, LT2:342, LotR:1085 cf. Letters:425

  THROUGH terë, ter; also used of time (with the sense of “through[out]”) in VT49:41: ter coivierya *“throughout his/her life”. “THROUGH-ABIDE” (i.e., stand [fast]) #termar(only fut. termaruva is attested)TER, UT:305, 317, VT44:35

THROW: the verb hat– “fling” may be used.

THRUST nir– (press, force [in a given direction]). (“Though applicable to the pressure of a person on others, by mind and ‘will’ as well as by physical strength, [this verb] could also be used of physical pressures exerted by inanimates.”) Given as a 1st person aorist nirin. Pa.t. probably *nindë since the R of nir– was originally D (the base is given as NID; compare rer– pa.t. rendë from RED concerning the past tense; see SOW). –VT41:17

THUMB nápo; in children’s play also called atto or atya (“daddy”), a term also used of the big toe. Other terms for “thumb” (toltil, tollë and tolpë) were apparently abandoned by Tolkien. –VT47:10, 13, 26, VT48:4 

  THUS sië; cf. also sinen “by this means, so”. The word sin, occurring in the untranslated sentence sin quentë Quendingoldo, has also been interpreted as “thus” (*“thus spoke Quendingoldo/Pengolodh”). –VT49:18, PM:401

THWART hranga– (said to be a weak verb) (PE17:154). Note: hranga is also an adjective “awkward, hard; stiff, difficult”.

THY (= singular YOUR)lya,tya (endings used on nouns, VT49:16, 48), e.g. *aldalya, *aldatya “thy tree”. The semantic distinction betweenlya and *-tya is thatlya is formal or polite, whereastya is intimate or familiar (see THOU). In UT:51 (cf. 22),lya is translated “your” instead of “thy”, following modern English usage (tielyanna “upon your path”, with the allative endingnna “upon” followinglya “your”). Independent words for “thy/thine” or “your/yours” (sg.) could possibly be *lyenya and *tyenya, derived from *lyen and *tyen as the theoretical dative forms of the independent pronouns lye, tye “thou” (compare ninya “my” and menya “our” as attested pronouns seemingly derived from the dative pronouns nin “for me”, men “for us”).

THYSELF (reflexive pronoun), see YOURSELF

TIDE – lowtide: nanwë (ebb); high tide: luimë (flood). Partially illegible glosses referred to in VT48:30 may suggest that luimë can also refer to any tide, or the spring tide. –VT48:26, 23, 24, 30

TIE (vb.) #nut– (cited in source as nutin “I tie”, 1st person aorist) –NUT

  TIGHT tunga (taut, [of strings:] resonant) –TUG

  TILL an (for, to) –Arct

  TILTED talta- (sloping, leaning) –TALÁT

  TIME lúmë (translated “hour” in LotR:94; allative lúmenna is attested. Note: lúmë also means “darkness”). Pl. locative lúmissen “at the times” (VT49:47). Cf. also (= “a time, occasion”). FIXED TIME asar (Vanyarin athar) (festival); pl. asari is attested.ONCE UPON A TIME  yassë, yalúmessë, yáressë (Note: the first of these seems to clash with *yassë “in/on which”.) MEAL TIME mat (matt-) AT ONE TIME (in the past), see ONCE.AT THIS TIME silumë (referring to the present of the time of speech). The word talumë is translated “at this time” in the sense of “at the time we are thinking or speaking of”, hence de facto meaning *”at that time” (the element ta– is normally defined “that”, not “this”). –LU, WJ:399/VT39:31, YA, QL:59, VT49:11-12

  TIMID caurëaLT1:257

  TIN latúcen; OF TIN latucendaLT1:268

  TINDER tusturëLT1:270

  TINFANG TimpandoLT1:268

  TINY titta (little) –TIT

TIP tillë (point) (also used of fingers and toes; see UP-POINT, UNDER-POINT) –VT47:10, 26

TIRED, cf. WEARY, DROWSY

  TISSUE lannë (cloth) –LAN

  TITLE see NICKNAME.

  TO, TOWARDS ana, na, an (for, till); (prefix:) ana-. English “to, towards, –wards” will often be rendered by the allative ending –nna, pl –nnar, as in Elenna “Starwards” (Elen + [n]na). The dative case inn may also express “to” or “for” in English, and shares the same origin as the preposition na.NĀ, Plotz letter, UT:432, Silm:313, VT49:14

TODAY (or, “this day”) síra (other variants, possibly rejected by Tolkien: siar, siarë, hyárë [archaic hyázë]) –VT43:18

TOE taltil (taltill-) (said to be the word for toe in “ordinary language”, VT47:10). The term nútil (nútill-, pl. nútilli given), “under-point”, is also used to mean “toe”. BIG TOE taltol, also tolbo (read perhaps *tolvo in the more usual form of Quenya). The word atto, atya, basically “daddy”, is said to be used for “big toe” (and “thumb”) in children’s play, like the word nettë (prob. netti-) “sister” is said to be used for “fourth toe” (or “fourth finger”, or even referring to the ninth digit when both hands/feet are considered). The word selyë “daughter” was also introduced as a name for the fourth finger/toe (counting from the big toe/thumb) in children’s play (VT47:10), but Tolkien apparendly abandoned it (VT47:15). The terms yonyo “big boy, son” and tolyo (also tollo) “stricker-up” could be used of the middle finger or toe. The word winimo “baby” (exilic *vinimo) was used for “little finger” or “little toe”.-VT47:10-12, 15, 26, VT48:6

  TOGETHER uo, also (as prefix) o-PE17:191, WŌ

  TOIL móta- (labour) –MŌ

  TOKEN tengwë (indication, sign, writing pl tengwi is attested) –WJ:394, 395 cf. TEK  

  TOMB #noirë (isolated from Noirinan, “Valley of the Tombs”; unless this compound is meant to contain a plural form noiri, it would suggest that #noirë has the stem-form noiri-). –UT:166

TOMORROW enwa. In one conceptual phase, noa meant “tomorrow”, but this is elsewhere used = “yesterday”.  –QL:34, VT49:20

 –TON (reduced form of “town” in names) –mas (-by) –LT1:251 

  TONGUE (physical tongue:) lamba, (language:)lambë, quetil (the latter also = “talk” or “language”). (In LT2:339, it is said that lambë covers both “physical tongue” and “speech”, but Tolkien later thought better of that. WJ:394  states that in non-technical use, lambë was the normal word for “language”; only the Loremasters used the technical term tengwesta instead.) LOREMASTER OF TONGUES #Lambengolmo (only pl Lambengolmor is attested, in VT48:6 also translated “linguistic loremasters”). USE TONGUE, see TALK. –LAB/LotR:1157/WJ:394, 396, KWET/VT45:25, VT48:6

TOO (= overly, excessively, as in “too big”) acca –PE13:108

TOOL tamma, carma (weapon). Note: carma may also mean “helmet”. Also see IMPLEMENT. –PE17:108, 114

  TOOTH nelet (nelc-), also nelcë; carca (fang, tusk); ROW OF TEETH carcanë (LT2 has carcassë, carcaras “row of spikes or teeth”.) –NÉL-EK/VT46:3, KARAK/LT2:344

TOP inga (referring “primarily to position and could be used of tops relatively broad”. Note: a homophone means “first”). MOUNTAIN-TOP orotinga; TREE-TOP aldinga –VT47:28

  TOPMOST PINNACLE see FINISH.

  TORMENT (vb) nwalya-. (Though spelt this way also in Etym, nwalya- must be from older *ngwalya, for the stem is ÑGWAL. In Tengwar spelling, the letter nwalmë (< older ngwalmë) should be used to transcribe the initial nw of nwalya.) TORMENT (noun) nwalmë (older [MET] ngwalmë), angaitya –LotR:1157 cf. ÑGWAL; LT1:249

  TORTURE ungwalë; (“Qenya” also:) malcanë, valcanëÑGWAL, LT1:250

TOUCH appa(“to touch” in a literal sense), #ap(given as aorist stem apë) figurative “to touch (one)” = “concern, affect”. TOUCHING pa, (as regards, concerning) –VT44:26

TOUGH norna (stiff), tarya (stiff) –WJ:413, TÁRAG

  TOWARDS ana, na, an (for); (prefix:) ana- (to). Very often, Quenya would use the allative case in –nna to express “towards”. –NĀ

  TOWER mindon (also translated “Lofty Tower”; allative pl mindonnar or mindoninnar is attested) (turret),mindo (=isolated tower), tirion (= watchtower; also defined as “a mighty tower, a city on a hill), tirin (= tall tower; Note: a homophone means “I watch”) See also TOWN WITH WALLS AND TOWERS. –LT2:346/MC:222, MINI, LT1:258, TIR

  TOWN osto (= town with wall) (city), opelë (walled village/house), irin; TOWN WITH WALLS AND TOWERS tirios (prob. tiriost-), TOWNSHIP ostarOS, PEL(ES), LT1:258, LT2:343, 336

  TRADE (vb) manca-, TRADESMAN macarMBAKH

  TRAILING sóra (long) –LT2:344

  TRANSPARENCE liquis, TRANSPARENCYthe word vírin is defined as “a magic glassy substance of great lucency used in fashoning the Moon. Used of things of great and pure transparency.” –LT1:262, LT2:339  

  TRAVEL lelya- (pa.t. lendë) (go, proceed) –WJ:363

  TREASURE harma, harwë (both words also used of a single treasured thing), foa, mírë (jewel, precious thing); TREASURY harwë (also used = treasure). –3AR/LotR:1157, LT2:340, MIR

  TREE alda (gen.pl. aldaron is attested), ornë (= high, isolated tree), taulë (= great tree). HAVING TREES, TREE-GROWN aldarwa, TREE-TOP aldinga, TREE-SHADOWED aldëa, AVENUE OF TREES aldëon; LORD OF TREES Aldaron (a name of Oromë)  –GALAD/Nam/LotR:1147/1157/VT39:7, VT47:28, OR-NI/LotR:488 cf. Letters:308, LT1:267, LT1:249, Silm:32, 378

TRESPASS (noun) #úcarë (isolated from úcaremmar “our sins/trespasses”; verb úcar– “to sin, trespass” (pl. aorist úcarer, úcarir attested). The noun #úcarë was the word used in Tolkien’s final version of the Quenya Lord’s Prayer; a draft version has #rohta (pl. rohtar) = “trespass” or “debt”. Compare TRESPASSERS #rohtalië or #ruhtalië (i.e. “trespass-people”, incorporating lië “people”?) from the same source. For other words for “trespasser” or “debtor”, see DEBTOR. –VT43:19, 21

  TRESS findë (lock of hair) (probably obsoleting findil in LT2) –SPIN, LT2:341

  TRIANGLE neltil (stem neltild-, as in pl. neltildi), nasta (spear-head/spear-point, gore) –TIL, SNAS, VT46:14

TRIBE hostarLT2:340; the conceptual validity of this “Qenya” word may be questioned, since in later Quenya it looks like the pl. form of hosta “large number”

TRICK (noun) rinca (twitch, jerk, sudden move) –VT46:11 cf. RIK(H)

TRIM netya– (adorn). (Note: netya– is also an adj. “pretty, dainty”.) –VT47:33

TRINITY Neldië –VT44:17

TRINKET (small thing of personal adornment) netil –VT47:33

TRIUMPH CRY OF TRIUMPH yello (call, shout) –GYEL, VT45:16

  TROOP hossë (army, band) –LT2:340

  TROTH vérë (bond, compact, oath) –WED

  TRUE naitë, nanwa (existing, actual), anwa (real, actual), sanda (firm, abiding). For “true” = “faithful”, see FAITHFUL. –VT49:28, 30, ANA, STAN

  TRUMP hyólaSD:419

TRUMPET (see also TRUMP) romba (horn), tumbë; TRUMPET-SOUND róma (loud sound) (Note: róma means “shoulder” in one of Tolkien’s early “Qenya” lexicons.) –WJ:400/ROM, LT1:269

TRUNCATED ARM OR BRANCH, see STUB, STUMP

  TRUST (noun) estel (hope) –MR:320

TRY nev–PE17:167 (Tolkien in the source expresses uncertainty as to whether this word should be adopted or not)

T-SERIES tincotéma (dental series) –LotR:1154

  TUBE rótaLT2:347

  TÚN (Old English) see FENCED FIELD –PEL(ES)

TUNE lindë (air, song, singing); HARPING ON ONE TUNE vorongandelë (“vorogandele” in the published Etymologies is a misreading; see VT45:7) (continuous repetition) –LIN2

TUNIC laupë (shirt) –QL:51

TUNNEL rotto (cave, small grot) –PM:365, VT46:12

  TURGON Turucáno (so in PM:345, obsoleting Turondo in LT1:115)

TURN (transitive) quer-, attested as pa.t. quernë (VT49:20). Also with prefix nan– “back”, attested in the plural passive participle nanquernë “turned back” (sg. *nanquerna; compare nuquerna, see REVERSED). (VT49:17, 18, 20). *TURNED WESTWARD númenquerna (VT49:18, 20). English intransitive “to turn” requires a reflexive pronoun in Quenya: mo quernë immo *“one turned oneself” (VT49:6), in idiomatic English simply “one turned”.

TURN-TABLE querma (spinning wheel) –PE17:65

TURRET mindon (tower) –LT1:260

  TUSK carca (tooth, fang) –Silm:429, LT2:344 

  TWANG tingë, tango. LT1:256 has quingi- “twang, of strings, harp”. In Etym, there is also the unglossed verb tanga–  = *”make a twang”??? –TING, TANG

TWELVE yunquë (“q”), archaic (pre-historic?) form yuncë (VT48:7, 8). Also (or in another conceptual phase, or in duodecimal counting?) #rasta (only the stem RÁSAT is given in the Etymologies, but cf. yurasta “24”, i.e. 2 x 12, in PE14:17). For the syntax of numerals, see THREE. TWELVE HOURS (“day” when not meaning 24 hours) arya (day). (The word arya is however assigned other meanings in later sources, and aurë is given as the word for “day” meaning daylight period.)  Fraction ONE TWELFTH yunquesta –VT47:41, VT48:6, PE14:82, RÁSAT, AR1, VT48:11

    TWENTY-FOUR yurasta –PE14:17

TWI- (prefix) -, yu– (both) –VT45:13, VT46:23

TWICE –PE14:84

TWILIGHT tindómë (usually of the time near dawn, glossed “starry twilight” in Silm:438), undómë (= evening twilight), yúcalë, yualë, lómë (stem lómi-) (night, dusk, gloom, darkness. Cf. Lómion “Child of the Twilight”.)LotR 1145, KAL, LT1:255, Silm:160

  TWIN onóna(also = adj “twinborn”, the primary meaning of the word), pl. ónoni (surprisingly, a dual form is not used) –WJ:367

  TWINE lia- (Note: lia is also a noun meaning “fine thread, spider’s filament”) –LT1:271

  TWINKLE #tintila- (only pl tintilar is attested) –Nam, RGEO:67

  TWINKLING STAR tingilya, tingilindëTIN

TWIST #ric– (only the perfect irícië “has twisted” is attested) (VT39:9)

  TWISTED nauca (hard, ill-shapen, *small – see SMALL.) –WJ:413

  TWITCH (verb:) rihta- (jerk, give quick twist or move), (noun:) rinca (jerk, trick, sudden move) –RIK(H), VT46:11 cf. RIK(H)

  TWO atta. When constructed with a noun, atta follows and the noun is wholly uninflected: elen atta “two stars”. Case endings (the simplest, normally “singular” ones) are added to the numeral: genitive elen atto “of two stars”. AT(AT)/Letters:427, VT48:6, VT49:44-45

  <U>

UDÛN Utumno (stem *Utumnu-) –Silm:438

UGH horro, orro (alas! ow!) (“exclamation of horror, pain, disgust”) –VT45:17

UGLY úvanima (not fair). See also WITHOUT BEAUTY.-VT39:14

ULCER: The early “Qenya” term sist with stem sisty– may perhaps be updated to LotR-style Quenya as *sistë with stem *sisti-. ULCERATED sistina (QL:86)

ULTIMATE métima (final, last) –MC:222 cf. 215

  UN- (prefix denying presence or possession of thing or quality) ú- (no-, not, un-, in-) (according to LR:396 s.v. UGU, this prefix usually has a “bad sense”, cf. vanimor “fair folk” vs. úvanimor “monsters”), il- (denoting “the opposite, the reversal, i.e., more than the mere negation”), also pretonic prefix la– “un-, not-“. –VT39:14, UGU, UMU, LT1:255, VT45:25

*UNCOUNTABLE únótima (pl. únótimë is attested). Translated “numberless”; the interlinear translation in RGEO:66 has “not-count-able”, while VT39:14 offers the translation “countless”. –Nam

UNCOUNTED unotë, unotëa (read *únotë, *únotëa?) (not counted) –VT39:14

  UNDER undu, nu (so in Nam; Etym has no); UNDERNEATH nún (down below); “UNDER-POINT” (lower digit = “toe”) nútil (nútill-, pl. nútilli given) –UNU, NŪ, VT47:10

  UNDERSTAND hanya– (know about, be skilled in dealing with); UNDERSTANDING (noun) handë (knowledge); UNDERSTANDING (adjectival) handa (intelligent) –KHAN

UNFOLDING (noun) pantië (opening, revealing) –QL:72

  UNFURL panta– (spread out, open) –PAT

  UNIVERSE ilu, ilúvë (the whole, the all, Allness). The term ilu used of the universe includes God and all souls and spirits, that are not properly included in the term .The verb , itself properly a verb “it is”, is also “used as noun = the whole created universe” (but “properly cannot be used of God since ëa refers only to all things created by Eru directly or mediately”). ILU (see IL), VT39:20, VT49:28

UNWILL avanir (VT39:23)

  UNPRONOUNCEABLE úquétima (impossible to say/put into words, unspeakable) –WJ:370

  UNSPEAKABLE úquétima (impossible to say/put into words, unpronounceable) –WJ:370

UNTIL, UNTO tenna (also in shortened form tenn‘ before a word in a-) –LotR:1003, VT44:35-36

UNWISE alasaila –VT41:13, 18

  UP, UPWARDS amba, ama (prefix:) am-. (The “Qenya” form amu in LT2:335 is prob. obsolete.) “UP-POINT” (upper digit = “finger”) ortil (ortill-, pl. ortilli given). UPWARD SLOPE amban; UPHILL (adj) ambapenda, ampenda  – AM2, UNU, VT47:10

  UPON – this English preposition may be rendered by the allative case, endings –nna pl. –nnar, dual –nta. Cf. falmalinnar “upon foaming waves”, tielyanna “upon your path”. –Nam, UT:22 cf. 51

  UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies) –MC:223

  UPRISING (noun) ambaron, Ambarónë (sunrise, Orient) (a similar but untranslated word, Ambaróna, occurs in LotR:490). Rómen is glossed “uprising, sunrise, east” in Silm:437, but the normal meaning of the word is always “east”. Cf. also: “UPRISING-FLOWER” *ambalotsë (“referring to the flower or floreate device used as a crest fixed to [the] point of a tall [illegible word, possibly ‘archaic’] helmet”, “pointed helm-crest”. Tolkien asterisked the word because it was not attested, only a possible Quenya form of the name Amloth) –AM2, LotR:490, WJ:318

  URANUS Luinil (or less probably Nénar; it is not known for certain which of the two is Uranus and which is Neptune) –Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55

  URGE horta– (speed, send flying); URGING (noun, not adjectival participle) hortalë (speeding), URGENCY hormëKHOR

  US: The exclusive pronoun (us = “I and some others, not you”) is me (suffixed to ála “do not” in ála tulya, “do not lead us”, VT43:12, 22).This pronoun evidently connects with the endinglmë, see WE. Inclusive “us” (i.e. “you and me”) should apparently be *ve (for older we), connecting with the subject endinglvë (olderlwë). If the pronouns me, *ve are stressed, the vowel may be lengthened (, , VT49:51). In another conceptual phase, Tolkien’s word for inclusive “we, us” may have been *ngwë (Third Age Quenya *nwë), VT48:11. The dual forms receive the endingt, hence met, wet > *vet as the words for “us” referring to only two persons (exclusive met = “me and one other [not you]”; inclusive wet/*vet = “thee and me”). – Evidently me, *ve would be the same as subject and object, so that these forms could also be translated “we” as a short independent pronoun, and they can also receive case endings, e.g. attested forms like locative messë “on us”, allative mello “from us”, dative men “for us”, allative véna “to us”. The forms atarmë, metermë “for us” also seem to include me, but these forms were evidently ephemeral (“for us”, exclusive, is better rendered as men, itself an attested form). –Nam/RGEO:67, VT43:15, 19, VT44:18, VT49:14

USE TONGUE, see TALK.

  USEFUL mára (fit, good) –MA3

USUAL senwa (also senya; analogy would however suggest that *senya can also be the independent pronoun “his, her”; if so senwa may be preferred as the less ambiguous form). AS USUAL ve senwa, ve senya. –VT49:22

 

  <V>

  VAGUE néca (faint, dim to see) –MC:223

  VALE (dark) tumbë (deep valley); DEEP VALE imbë (dale) (Note: imbë is also the preposition “between”) –LT:269, VT45:18

 *VALIAN valarinwa, attested in Lambë Valarinwa “the language of the Valar, *Valian Language”. Cf. also valaina “of the Valar, belonging to the Valar”(divine) –WJ:395, BAL

VALLEY nan (nand-), tumbo (stem *tumbu-) (deep valley under/among hills, dark vale; so in Etym, Silm:438 and LT1:269. Letters:308 gives tumba “deep valley”.) VALLEY (adj.) nalda (lowly), “VALLEY OF SINGING GOLD” Laurelindorinan (Lórien). –TUB, LotR:488 cf. Letters:308, LT1:261, UT:449

  VALOUR cánë –KAN

VALUABLE mirwa (precious) –PE17:37

  VANISHED vanwa (gone, departed, dead, lost, past and over) –WAN, Nam, WJ:366

  VAST – LT2 gives aica “broad, vast”, but aica is said to mean “sharp” in later writings. –LT2:338

  VEIL (vb) halya- (conceal, screen from light), fanta– (to cloak, mantle). “VEILS, RAYMENT” fana (pl fanar is attested. This word was used of the visible bodies in which the Valar presented themselves to incarnates.) VEILED halda (hidden, shadowed, shady) –SKAL, VT43:22, RGEO:74

  VENUS Eärendil (Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55), Tancol (“Signifer”, “the significant star” – MR:385)

VERDIGRIS lairus (lairust-) –VT41:10

 VESSEL venë (small boat, dish) –LT1:254

VESTMENT colla (cloak) –MR:385

  VICTORY túrë (mastery, might, strength), apairë –TUR, GL:17

  VIGIL tirissë, also short tiris (tiriss-) (watch) –QL:93, LT1:258

  VIGOUR tuo (muscle, sinew, strength), vië (manhood), vëassë, laito/laisi (new life, youth); VIGOROUS vëa (adult, manly); SET VIGOROUSLY OUT TO DO horya– (be compelled to do, have an impulse)TUG, LT1:267, WEG, VT45:22

  VILLAGE masto, (walled village:) opelë (town) –LT1:251, PEL(ES)

  VINE liantassë, in other early material also liantë, but the latter word is elsewhere defined as “spider” or “tendril” instead.LT1:271, PE14:55

  VIOLENCE ormë (rushing, wrath, haste); VIOLENT naraca (harsh, rending) (possibly “of sounds”, but Tolkien’s extra comment is partially illegible) –GOR, KHOR, NÁRAK, VT45:37

  VIOLET helin,Helinyetillë (“Eyes of heartsease”) (pansy) –LT1:262

VIRGIN, see MAID, MAIDEN

*VIRGINAL (or, *MAIDENLY) *vénëa (only attested in elided form vénë’) –VT44:10

  VIRGINITY vénë (with the alternative, older [MET] form wénë), venessë –WEN

VISION olos (olor– for older oloz-, as in the archaic pl. olozi, later olori) (dream) –UT:396.

  VOCALIC EXTENSION ómataina (i.e., the addition to the base of a final vowel identical to the base vowel [sundóma]) –WJ:417

  VOICE óma (pl instrumental ómainen “with voices” is attested. In some words, óma is translated “vowel”, q.v.) VOICELESS ómalóra –OM, WJ:391, VT39:16 (the latter source defines óma as “voice, resonance of the vocal chords”), VT45:28

VOID lusta (empty), cúma (the Void) –LUS, KUM

VOMIT quama– (be ill) –QL:76

  VOWEL #ómëa (only pl. ómëar attested), also #óma-tengwë, #ómatengwë (this term refers to vowels considered as independent phonemes, according to Fëanor’s new insights on phonemics; only pl. ómatengwi is attested), óman (pl. “amandi” in LR:379 is a misreading for omandi, VT46:7; this term from the Etymologies may in any case be obsoleted by the above-mentioned forms), #lehta tengwë (lit. “free/relased element”; only pl. lehta tengwi is attested; we would rather expect *lehtë tengwi). (Note: In some compounds, óma seems to mean “vowel” instead of “voice”: VOWEL SIGN #ómatehta (only pl ómatehtar is attested), DETERMINANT VOWEL sundóma, VOCALIC EXTENSION ómataina (q.v. for definition). Yet another term for “vowel”, #penna pl. pennar, is given in VT39:16, but this is taken from a draft and not included in the final text Tolkien wrote. The term #mussë tengwë “soft element” (only attested in the pl.: mussë tengwi) covers vowels, semi-vowels (y, w) and continuants (l, r, m, n). –VT39:8/16, OM, WJ:396, 319, 417, VT39:17

 

  <W>

  WAIF hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (one lost or forsaken by friends, outcast, outlaw) –WJ:365

WAILING (noun) yaimë;WAILING (adj) yaimëaMC:223

  WAIN lunca (VT43:19); as for the constellation (aka the Great Bear), see SICKLE OF THE VALAR

  WAKENING (adj) cuivëa (awakening) –KUY

  WALK (vb) vanta-; WALK (noun) vantaBAT

  WALL ramba; WALL AND MOAT ossa; TOWN WITH WALLS AND TOWERS tiriosRAMBĀ/Silm:436, LT1:258, LT2:336

 *WANDER ranya-(only glossed “stray” under RAN, but cf. Silm:436: “ran- ‘wander, stray'” and the following word:) WANDERING (noun) ránë (straying) (pl. probably *ráner not ráni; cf. the similar formation tyávë “taste” pl tyáver.) WANDERER Rána (a name of the Moon), #ran (isolated from Palarran “far-wanderer”, the name of a ship) –RAN, Silm:436, UT:460, 461

  WANT #mer-(cited in the form merë, evidently the 3rd person aorist; pa.t. given as mernë)(wish, desire) –MER

  WAR ohtaOKTĀ, KOT

  WARM laucaLAW

  WARRIOR ohtatyaro, ohtar, #mehtar (isolated from Telumehtar “Orion, warrior of the sky”, a word occurring in LotR. Etym gives mahtar “warrior” under MAK, but Telumehtar not **Telumahtar under TEL). LT1:268 also has mordo “warrior, hero”, but in Tolkien’s later Quenya mordo means “obscurity, shadow, stain, smear, dimness”.KYAR (see KAR), UT:458, LotR:1146, MAK, TEL

  WARWICKSHIRE Alalminórë (Land of Elms) –LT1:249

WAS nánë, ; see BE. –VT49:28

WASH: Early “Qenya” had a verb sovo-, that may perhaps be adopted to Tolkien’s later system as *sov– or *sova-; the past tense is given as sóvë. WASHING sovallë (bathing, purification). –QL:86

  WATCH (vb) #tir(cited in source as tirin “I watch”, 1st pers. aorist), also attested as pa.t. tirnë, imperative tira and fut. tiruva is attested (the last is translated “shall heed” in the source), WATCH-TOWER tirion; WATCH (noun) tirissë, also short tiris, tiriss– (vigil) –TIR, VT47:31, MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:258, QL:93, LT1:268

  WATER nén (nen-) (LT1:262 also has linquë, but this word has other meanings in Tolkien’s later Quenya), WATER-FALL – LT1:249 gives axa, but this is probably obsoleted by axa “narrow path” in Etym;WATERY *nenda (wet in the Etymologies as printed in LR, nenda seemed to be a Quenya word, but according to VT46:3 it actually appears as a primitive form nendā in Tolkien’s manuscript; the Quenya form would still be *nenda, but it is unattested). WATER-MEAD, WATERED PLAIN nanda; WATER-LOVERS Nendili (used of the Lindar), WATER-VESSEL calpa; DRAW WATER calpa- (scoop out, bale out); ISSUE OF WATER ehtelë (fountain, spring, also cehtelë, see FOUNTAIN),  WATER FALLING OUT SWIFTLY FROM A ROCKY SPRING celussë (freshet),YELLOW WATER-LILY nénuNEN, WJ:410, NAD, KALPA, KEL, UT:426, LT1:248

  WAVE (crested), WAVE-CRESTfalma (partitive plural allative falmalinnar is attested. LT1:266 has solmë instead of falma.) –PHAL, VT42:15, Nam/RGEO:67

  WAX líco (evidently with stem *lícu-), neitëMC:223, GL:60

  WAY tië (path, course, line, direction, road), #vanda (isolated form Qualvanda “Road of Death” in LT1:264; cf. vand- “way, path” on the same page) See ROAD. –TE3/RGEO:67, LT1:264

  WE, US: The relevant Quenya pronouns make two distinctions not found in English. “We” can be either inclusive or exclusive, depending on whether the party addressed is included in “we” or not. Furthermore, “we” can be either plural (involving at least three persons) or dual (involving only two persons, the speaker and one other). Tolkien repeatedly revised the relevant endings. According to VT49:16, 51 one late resolution goes like this: The ending for plural exclusive “we” islmë, corresponding to dual exclusive –mmë. Hence e.g. carilmë *“we [not including you] do”, carimmë *“the two of us do; I and one other [not you] do”. The ending for plural inclusive “we” is to belwë orlvë, corresponding tongwë for dual inclusive “we” (VT49:16; variantnquë in VT49:51): Carilwë “we [including you] do”, caringwë “the two of us do; thou and I do”. The corresponding independent pronouns were pl. exclusive me, pl. inclusive we or later ve with variant vi (PE17:130); when stressed these could have long vowels ( and > , VT49:51). They may also appear in object position (“us” rather than “we”), e.g. suffixed to ála “do not” in the negative command ála tulya, “do not lead us(VT43:12, 22). If these pronouns are to be dual, they receive the dual endingt (exclusive met, inclusive wet > *vet; compare imbë met “between us [two]” in Namarië). The dual pronouns do not have a long vowel even when stressed. The pronouns me, we/*ve and their long variants can also receive case endings, like dative men or véna “for us” (VT43:27, 28, 33, VT49:14) or locative messë “on us” (VT44:12). An emphatic pronoun is attested as emmë “we” (VT43:20), this reflects an earlier conceptual stage where Tolkien used the forms inmmë for plural rather than dual exclusive “we” (VT49:48, cf. forms like vammë, WJ:371); presumably he would later regard emmë as a dual exclusive form, corresponding to pl. *elmë (and with *elwë > *elvë and *engwë as the emphatic pronouns for inclusive “you”, plural and dual, respectively). These emphatic pronouns can also receive case endings; the dative form emmen “for us” is attested (VT43:12, 20). – Genitive forms, see OUR; reflexive pronouns, see OURSELVES.

  WEAK milya (soft, gentle) (Note: milya– is also a verb “long for”.) The adjectives nípa and *nimpë (the latter given in archaic form nimpi), meaning “small”, are said to be used “usually with connotation of weakness”. –VT45:34, VT48:18

WEAL, WEALTH alma (good fortune), ausië, autë (prosperity, also adj: rich) WEALTHY herenya (blessed, fortuneate, rich) –GALA, LT2:336, KHER

WEAPON carma (tool; the word may also mean “helm”). –PE17:114

  WEAR see BEAR. WEAR (OUT) yerya- (get old) (Note: yerya is also the adjective “old, worn”) –GYER

WEARY lumba –VT45:29

  WEATHER dark weather: lúrëLT1:259

  WEAVE lanya-; EVER-WEAVING Vairë (name of a Valië)LAN, VT39:10

  WEB natsë (net); SPIDER’S WEB ungwëNAT, LotR:1157

  WED verya-; the verb is intransitive and the person wedded appears in the allative (veryanen senna *”I married him/her”, compare English “get married to”). The word verya– also means “dare”, but since this is transitive and would always be followed by a direct object, the two verbs can be distinguished.Transitive verta– means “to give in marriage” or “to take as husband or wife” (to oneself). In an earlier source, Tolkien gave the verb “to wed” as vesta-. Noun WEDDING veryanwë(going with verya– and verta-); in an earlier source, Tolkien gave this word as vestalë. Veryanwë is also attested with pronominal suffixes: veryanwesta, genitive veryanwesto “(of) your wedding”, with a dual form of “your”; also veryanweldo with a plural “your”. –VT49:45, BES, WED

  WEDGE nehtë (spearhead, gore, narrow promontory. Note: a homophone means “honeycomb”.) –UT:282

WEEKlemnar (from a root meaning “five”, since the Valian week had five days),enquië (from a root meaning “six”, since the Eldarin week had six days), otsola (evidently meaning a seven-day week like our own, as otso = “seven”) –LEP, LotR:1141 cf. ÉNEK, GL:62

  WEEPING nyényëLT1:262

  WEFT lanat, wistëLAN , LT1:254

WELL (adverb) mai –VT47:6

WELL (noun): the form lón or lónë (pl. lóni given) has the partially illegible gloss “deep pool, or river-[?feeding] well”. Early material has tampo “well”. –VT48:28. QL:93

  WENT lendë (departed) (past tense of lelya-/lenna- “go”) LT1:264 gives , but this is probably not a valid word in LotR-style Quenya. –LED cf. VT45:27, WJ:363

  WEREWOLF nauro (In Etym, this word is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) –NGAW

  WEST númen (so in Etym and LotR; Númen is capitalized in UT:305. According to VT45:38 the form núme-also occurs in Tolkien’s Etym manuscript, and númë is attested in LT1:263 as well), andúnë (sunset, evening); WESTWARD númenna; WESTERN númenya; adj. IN THE WEST númëa; WESTLAND see WESTERNESSE; WESTLANDS Andustar (a region in Númenor) “WEST-WINGS” (the name of a ship) Númerrámar. TURNED WESTWARD númenquerna LotR:1157/NDŪ, Nam,  UT:305, Silm:428, LT1:263, UT:165, 419, UT:175, 458, VT49:18, 20, 22

  WESTERNESSE, WESTLAND Númenor(full form Númenórë) –Silm:313, 414

  WET mixa, linquë (obsoleting liquin in LT1:262, but in later Quenya, linquë also means “hyacinth” or *”grass, reed”), *nenda (watery in the Etymologies as printed in LR, nenda seemed to be a Quenya word, but according to VT46:3 it actually appears as a primitive form nendā in Tolkien’s manuscript; the Quenya form would still be *nenda, but it is unattested.) –MISK, NEN, LINKWI

  WHAT, evidently mana as in mana i coimas Eldaron[?] “what is the coimas [lembas] of the Eldar?” (PM:396). See also WHO. Where “what” means “that which”, it may be translated by a relative pronoun, as in lá carita i hamil mára “not to do what you judge good” –VT42:33

WHAT IS MORE yëa, (Note: is also an interjection “lo! now see!”); see MOREOVER under MORE. –VT47:31

WHEEL (spinning wheel) querma (also = turn-table) –PE17:65

  WHEN: The question-word “at what time?” is unattested, though paraphrases are possible (e.g. *mana i lú yassë menuvas? “what’s the time that he will go?” for “when will he go?”) “When” introducing a statement of time appears as írë in Fíriel’s Song (írë Anarinya queluva, “when my sun faileth”, LR:72). Another example has (in a phrase translated “when winter comes”, VT49:23), but different meanings (“formerly, ago”) are ascribed to the word elsewhere, possibly leaving írë less ambiguous (though this word itself must be distinguished from írë “desire”). In phrases like “the day when we came”, yassë “in which” may be used.

WHENEVER quiquië, quië –VT49:23, 35

WHEREIN yassen (refering back to a pl word; sg #yassë). See WHICH. –Nam, RGEO:66, 67

WHEREUPON epeta, epta (following that, thence, thereupon) –VT49:12

WHICH ya (known from the Arctic sentece and attested with a plural locative ending in Nam: yassen“which-in, wherein”. See WHO concerning relative pronouns.) –Nam, RGEO:66

  WHINING miulë (mewing) –MIW

  WHIRLPOOL hwindëSWIN

  WHISPER (vb) lussa-; WHISPERING SOUND lussëSLUS (and because this is the basic root here, and Tolkien elsewhere indicated that older initial sl– produces Quenya hl-, it may be that these words should properly be cited as *hlussa-, *hlussë.)

WHICH (relative pronoun) ya, ; this relative pronoun may receive case endings, e.g. yassen “in which, wherein” (pl.) in Namárië. See THAT #3. It is unclear what the interrogative “which” would be in Quenya; maybe mana “what” (?) can be substituted. –VT43:34, VT47:21

  WHITE ninquë (stem *ninqui-) (chill, pallid), fána/fánë (associated with the whiteness of clouds, fanyar), lossë (snow-white). –NIK-W-/GL:60/Silm:435 cf. WJ:417, SPAN/VT46:15, RGEO:69, MC:221-223

  WHO (interrogative pronoun) man (so in Nam and MC:222; MC:221 one place has men, but that is evidently an error, for man occurs in the same text. In FS and LR:59/63, man is translated “what”. Either Tolkien later adjusted the meaning of the word, or man covers the meaning of both “who” and “what”, but mana is seemingly attested in PM:396 as a distinct word for “what”.) NOTE: this “who” is used only in questions. As for “who” as a relative pronoun, as in “the man who did this”, see THAT #3. –Nam/MC:222

  WHOEVER aiquen (if anybody) –WJ:372

  WHOLE ilya (all), THE WHOLE ilúvë (the All, Allness, universe). According to early material, “the whole” (followed by some noun) is rendered by i quanda, e.g. *i quanda cemen “the whole earth” –IL, Silm:433, QL:70

  WHOLLY aqua (fully, completely, altogether) –WJ:392

WICKED olca (bad). Compare ulca “evil”, q.v. –VT43:23-24

  WIDE yonda (roomy, extensive), palla, landa; FAR AND WIDE palan (or “wide, over a wide space, to a distance”, VT45:21); THE WIDE WORLD Palurin–PE17:43, PAL, LAD, Silm:435, LT1:264

  WIELD #tur(cited in source as turin “I wield”, 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. turnë (control, govern). WIELD, esp. WIELD A WEAPON mahta- (deal with, fight, handle, manage); pa.t. mahtanë is attested. –TUR, MAK/VT39:11, MA3, VT47:6, 18, 19, VT49:10

WIFE veri, in earlier material also vessë (In UT:8, indis is translated “wife”, but in Etym this word is glossed “bride”.)  –VT49:45, BES, UT:8 cf. NDIS

  WILD verca; WILD BEAST hravan. Pl. Hravani the “Wild”, term used in Exilic Quenya to designate Men not belonging to the three houses of the Edain. –BERÉK, WJ:219, PE17:78

  WILDERNESS ráva (Note: a homophone means “riverbank”). The form ravanda (or possibly rovanda) mentioned in VT46:10 may be either a Quenya word or an etymological form cited to explain the “Noldorin” word rhofan. –RAB, VT46:10

  WILL (#1) (noun) níra (= “will” as a potential or faculty, while “act of will” is nirmë), *selma (Þ)(“a fixed idea, will”. In WJ:319, the word is given as Þelma, but Þ (th)would become s in the Noldorin Quenya. Cf. Þindë, sindë in WJ:384) Other words for “will” turn up in Tolkien’s various translations of “thy will be done” in the Lord’s Prayer: indómë, replacing #mendë (mendelya “thy will”); according to VT43:16, Tolkien in his notes defined indómë as “settled character, also used of the ‘will’ of Eru”. –VT39:30/VT41:6, 17; WJ:319, VT43:15-16

WILL (#2) (verb) – as part of English circumlocutions expressing futurity, this verb will be rendered by the Quenya future tense inuva, e.g. #maruva “will abide”. WILL BE, see BE.

  WILL NOT I will not: (exclamation, also = Do not!); avan, ván, vanyë “I won’t”, avammë, vammë “we won’t” –WJ:371

  WILLOW-TREE tasar, tasarë (Þ)(probably obsoleting tasarin in LT2:346) –TATHAR/Silm:438

  WIND #súrë (Þ?)(instrumental form súrinen is attested, indicating a stem-form súri-), súlimë (Þ) (also the name of the month of March), vaiwa, waiwa (the latter is probably an older [MET] form); SOUND/NOISE OF WIND , WINDY wanwavoitë (pl. wanwavoisi) –MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:266, Nam/RGEO:66, VT47:12, WĀ, LT1:266

  WIND UP telya- (transitive) (conclude, finish) –WJ:411

  WINE miru, limpë (the drink of the Valar, or of the fairies). The word míruvórë, míruvor is defined as “a special wine or cordial.”) –LT1:261, LIP, LT1:258, WJ:399

  WING ráma (Pl. rámar and plural instrumental form rámainen are attested. The form #rámë, occurring in the ship-name Eärrámë “Sea-Wing”, evidently has a feminine ending.)

HAVING WINGS rámavoitë (pl. prob. *rámavoisi, cf. LEAPING, WINDY), “WEST-WINGS” (the name of a ship) NúmerrámarRAM/LT2:335, MC:222, Silm:295, UT:175, 458

  WINTER hrívë, in Tolkien’s early “Qenya” also Yelin, Hesin.In the Calendar of Imladris, hrívë was a precisely defined period of 72 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition. Lasselanta “leaf-fall” could be used for the beginning of winter, but the usual translation of this word is “autumn”. WINTER ONE” Hescil (a title of Nienna “who breedeth winter”, LT1:66, 255) –LotR:1141, 1145; LT1:255, LT1:260

  WISDOM nolwë (secret lore, obsoleting nólemë in LT1:263), nólë (long study, lore, knowledge) (In Etym these words, as well as nóla below, are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Nólë is so spelt also in Silm:432. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) WISE #saila (isolated from alasaila “unwise”), nóla (learned), saira, istima (having knowledge, learned), iswa, isqua –NGOL, VT41:13, 18, Silm:432, IS, SAY/VT46:12, LT2:339

  WISH (vb) #mer-(cited in the form merë, evidently the 3rd person aorist; pa.t. given as mernë)(desire); WISH TO GO TO A PLACE mína– (desire to go in some direction, make for it, have some end in view). –MER, VT39:11

  WITCH (of the good magic) curuniLT1:269

WITH: For the purpose of Neo-Quenya writing, the best translation of “with” (in the sense of “together with”) is probably #as, attested with a pronominal suffix (see below). A string of various prepositional elements meaning “with” are attested, but all are probably not meant to coexist in the same form of Quenya; rather Tolkien often changed his mind about the details. The preposition , le found in early material (QL:52) is probably best avoided in LotR-style Quenya (in which langauge le is rather the pronoun “you”). Tolkien later seems to be experimenting with yo and ó/o as words for “with”; yo hildinyar in SD:56 probably means *”with my heirs”, and VT43:29 reproduces a table where various pronouns are suffixed to ó-, probably meaning “with” (óni *”with me”, ólë *”with you”, etc.) In the essay Quendi and Eldar, Tolkien assigns a dual meaning to ó– as a prefix; it was used “in words describing the meeting, junction, or union of two things or persons, or of two groups thought of as units” (WJ:367; cf. 361 regarding the underlying stem WO, said to be a dual adverb “together”). The plural equivalent of dual ó– is yo– (as in yomenië, WJ:407 cf. 361 regarding the underlying root ), and it may seem to be this yo that occurs as an independent preposition in yo hildinyar in SD:56. The idea that ó– is a distinctly dual form does not appear in all sources; in VT43:29 we have forms like *ómë *”with us”, implying at least three persons. In Tolkien’s drafts for a Quenya rendering of the Hail Mary, he experimented with various prepositional elements for the phrase “with thee” (see VT43:29). A form carelyë was replaced with aselyë in the final version. Removing the endinglyë “thee” and the connecting vowel before it leaves us with #as as the word (or a word) for “with”; this is ultimately related to the conjunction ar “and” (see VT43:30, 47:31). – In English, the preposition “with” may also have an instrumental force, which is best rendered by the Quenya instrumental case (e.g. *nambanenwith [= using] a hammer”).

WITHER hesta-, WITHERED hessa (dead) –LT1:255

  WITHIN mi (see IN) –MI

WITHOUT (adj & prep) ú (usually followed by genitive: ú calo “without light [cala]”) (destitute of). WITHOUT BEAUTY úvanë, adj. úvanëa. (As for a suffix “-less”, also glossed “without” by Tolkien, see entryLESS.) –VT39:14

  WIZARD istar (nom. pl. istari and gen.pl. istarion are attested), sairon, curuvar WIZARDRY – in LT1:269, curu is glossed “magic, wizardry”, but in Etym the gloss is simply “skill”. –LotR:1121, UT:388, cf. IS, SAY; LT1:269

  WOLF ráca, narmo, WEREWOLF nauro; WOLFHOWL naulë (In Etym, narmo, nauro and naulë are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) –DARÁK, NGAR(A)M, NGAW

  WOMAN nís (so in MR:213, Etym gives nis, but both sources agree that the pl is nissi (the alternative pl. form nísi in VT43:31 seems abnormal, since this would be expected to become *nízi > *níri). A longer form of nís/nis is nissë, clashing with *nissë “in me”. For clarity writers should probably use the short sg nís, as Tolkien himself does in MR:213, with the stem niss– before endings, as in the pl. nissi). At the end of compounds the formnis may occur, as in Artanis (see NOBLE WOMAN). A poetic word for “woman” is †(female). The form #nína (gen. pl. nínaron attested, VT43:31) may have been but an ephemeral word for “woman” in Tolkien’s conception. LARGE WOMAN nisto –NDIS/NĪ/NIS, MR:213, VT43:31, NĪ, INI, VT47:33

WOMB #móna (isolated from mónalyo “of thy womb”). Another word, #carva, was possibly rejected by Tolkien. –VT43:31

WONDER (noun) elmenda –PM13:143

WON’T see WILL NOT

WOOD toa (probably “wood” as a material rather than “wood” = “forest”; not to be confused with the homophone adj. toa “of wool, woollen”), GREAT WOOD taurë (pl. tauri is attested) (forest), wood as material: tavar (also toa), rough piece of wood: runda, piece of shaped wood: pano, smouldering wood (ember): yulmë (Note: yulmë also means “drinking, carousal”) firewood: turu(“firewood” was the proper meaning, but the word was used for “wood” in general); OF WOOD taurina, WOODEN turúva, WOODEN POST samna (Þ); WOODEN HALL ampano, WOODPECKER tambaro, WOODLAND tavas (LT1:261 also gives nan(d), but this means “valley” in LotR-style Quenya.) –VT39:6, TÁWAR/Silm:438/MC:222 cf. 215, RUD, PAN, YUL, LT1:270, STAB, TAM, LT1:267

  WOOF windaLT1:254

  WOOL (obsoleting oa in LT1:249; GL:71 has toa, but cf the following:)OF WOOL, WOOLLEN toa (not to be confused with the homophone toa “wood”) –TOW

  WORD quetta (pl. quettar is attested. LT2:348 gives quent; this word is no doubt obsolete in LotR-style Quenya. GL:28 has “qetta-“). Quetië, literally *“saying”, is also translated “word” (or “words”) in one text. –Silm:436, WJ:391, VT49:28

  WORLD Ambar (earth), THE WIDE WORLD Palurin. (LT2 gives irmin “the world, all the regions inhabited by Men”; this is probably not a valid word in LotR-style Quenya.) OF THE WORLD marda (an adjective, *”wordly”); THE ENDING OF THE WORLD Ambar-metta, ambarmetta; “WORLD-ARTIFICER” Martamo (a title of Aulë)REDEEMER OF THE WORLD Mardorunando (it is not clear whether the initial element #mardo means “world” or “of the world”; cf. marda above. It may be that mardo is the genitive of mar, mard-, translated “earth” in Fíriel’s Song.) –LotR:1003 cf. MBAR, VT44:36, LT1:251, 264, LT2:343, LT1:266, VT44:17

  WORN yerna (old [of things]), colla (passive participle of #col- “bear, *wear”) (borne). The latter is also used as a noun = “vestment, cloak”. –GYER, MR:385

  WORTH, WORTHY valda (dear) –GL:23

  WOSE , Rúatan (pl Rúatani is given)UT:385

  WOUND (vb) harna-; WOUNDED harna; WOUND (noun) harwë –SKAR

  WRAP (verb) vaita- (enfold); WRAP (noun) vaima (robe)  –LT1:271, QL:100, VT46:21

  WRATH rúsë (Þ), also ormë (haste, violence, rushing). WRATHFUL rúsëa (Þ) –PE17:188, GOR, KHOR

  WREATHEría (garland) –PM:347

  WRIGHT samno (Þ)(carpenter, builder) –STAB

WRIST málimë (literally “hand-link”, + #limë). Stem *málimi-, given primitive form mā-limi. –VT47:6

  WRITE #tec– (3rd pers. aorist tecë is given); noun WRITING sarmë (in the Etymologies also tengwë, but in a later source this word is said to mean “indication, sign, token”, and this meaning may be predominant in Tolkien’s later Quenya; pl tengwi is attested); WRITING SYSTEM tencelë (spelling); WRITINGS parma (book)  –VT39:8, TEK cf. WJ:394, 395, LT2:346

  WRONG raica (crooked, bent). INDUCEMENT TO DO WRONG #úsahtië (temptation), attested in the allative case (úsahtienna) –RÁYAK, VT43:23

 

  <Y>

YARD ranga (pl rangar is attested). The basic meaning of ranga was “full pace”. This Númenórean linear measure was “slightly longer than our yard, approximately 38 inches [= 96.5 cm]”. –UT:285, 461

YAWN yanga-, #hac(only attested as participle: hácala “yawning”) –YAG, MC:222

  YEAR loa (lit. “growth”), coranar (lit. “sun-round”, used when the year was considered more or less astronomically – but loa is stated to be the more usual word for “year”). The pl. coranári is attested (PM:126). LONG-YEAR yén (pl. yéni is attested in Nam; the Etymologies as printed in LR cite the stem-form as yen-, but according to VT46:22 Tolkien’s manuscript actually has the pl. form yéni as in Nam). A “long-year” is a period of 144 solar years, an Elvish “century” – the Eldar used duodecimal counting, in which 144 is the first three-digit number, like our 100. But sometimes it seems that yén simply means “year”. Cf the following words: LAST YEAR yenya, HAVING MANY YEARS linyenwa (old), *RECKONING OF YEARS YénonótiëLotR:1141, YEN, MR:51

  YELLOW malina, tulca (the latter was adopted from Valarin and used in Vanyarin Quenya only),YELLOW POWDER malo (stem *malu-) (pollen) (note: a homophone means “moth”), “YELLOW HAMMER” (yellow bird) ammalë, ambalë, YELLOW WATER-LILY nénuSMAL, WJ:399, LT1:248

YES (literally “is”, i.e. “[so it] is”), also (in the “past tense”) , with reference to something past, i.e. “yes” =” it was so, it was as you say/ask”. Náto is possibly an emphatic form of “yes”. –In one conceptual phase, Tolkien used for “yes”, but in both earlier and later material, is the negation “no, not” instead. –QL:64, VT42:33, VT49:18, 28-29, 31

YESTERDAY noa (shortened from the full phrase noa ré “former day”; thus noa is basically an adjective “former”). In another conceptual phase, noa meant “tomorrow” instead. Not to be confused with noa “conception; idea”. –VT49:34

  YOKE yanta (bridge), yaltë –YAT, GL:37

  YON, YONDER (adj) enta (note: a homophone means “another, one more”); YONDER (interjection?) en (there, look!) –EN, VT45:12

  YOU (plural and dual only; for singular “you”, see THOU): Plural “you” is normally expressed by the endingldë (VT49:51) that is added to verbs, e.g. carildë “you do” (VT49:16; in earlier texts Tolkien also used the ending–llë for pl. “you”, VT43:36, VT49:48). The reduced forml may be attached to an imperative: hecal! “you be gone!” (WJ:364). Independent pronoun le, with long vowel (, VT49:51) when stressed. Case endings may be added, e.g. dative *len “for you” (cf. nin “for me”). YOUR (plural) is expressed by the endinglda (VT49:16), e.g. onnalda “your child” (VT49:42); as an independent word perhaps *lenya (compare ninya “my” vs. ni “I”, nin “for me”). – Dual forms of YOU, used when addressing two persons: endingstë (for original –dde, VT49:16, 33, 51), independent pronoun tyet (intimate/familiar) or let (polite/formal), YOUR (dual): endingsta (VT49:16), as independent word perhaps *tyentya, *lentya derived from dual dative forms *tyent, *lent “for you (two)”. Compare such attested forms as ninya “my” and menya “our” vs. the dative pronouns nin “for me”, men “for us”.

  YOUNG nessa, vinya, cana; YOUTH nésë (Þ), nessë, vírië, vínë, laito/laisi (vigour, new life). Note: all of these words seem to mean “youth” as an abstract; for “youth” = “young person”, see YOUNGSTER.  YOUNG OR SMALL WOMAN, see GIRL. YOUTHFUL nessimaNETH, VT46:22, VT47:26, LR:25, GL:37, LT1:267

YOUNGSTER winyamo (read *vinyamo in Exilic Quenya) –VT47:26

YOUR, see YOU

YOURSELF (or “thyself”, reflexive pronoun) immo (a general sg. reflexive pronoun, covering English “myself, him/herself, yourself”). Also specific 2nd person forms: intyë (apparently familiar), imlë (apparently formal). Plural YOURSELVES indë (a form imde is also listed, but may be intended as the older form that yielded indë) –VT47:37

YOUTH (abstract), see YOUNG; for “youth = young person”, the word glossed YOUNGSTER (q.v.) may be used

 

  <Z>

ZIMRAPHEL MírielUT:224, Silm:324

ZIMRATHÔN HostamirUT:222

2 responses to “Vinyë Quettaparmar

  1. How can I be informed when new words are added to this page?

    • Stay tuned at Quenya101 Twitter, Tumblr and Facebook page. All updates are always announced through them. However, this is one kind of page that is not updated constantly and that won’t change for the near future, you know.

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